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Tuesday, January 23, 2018

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453. Anon.. undated. A long range program for weed control.. V. Kaiser papers, box 3, folder 203.
Suggests a 7 yr rotation; yr 1 plant alfalfa/grass mix (brome, fescue, and orchardgrass); mow when needed; yr 2,3,4- cut for hay, or pasture; yr 4- plow around June 15, cultivate to control weeds; 2,4-D; dry plow after harvest; yr 6 - fallow, yr 7- winter wheat.

1493. Cuthbertson, E.G.. 1969. Chondrilla juncea in Australia. 2. Preplanting weed control and wheat production.. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb., 9:27-36.
Both lucerne and subterranean clover reduced skeletonweed populations significantly. The yield response comes from the temporary removal of the weed in the presowing period, rather than from the longer term reduction in weed cover. The response on plots with low weed density was not economic. Early suppression of the weed by any means increases grain yield. Critical density would be about 20% ground cover. My experience is that 30% groundcover generally warrants herbicide application. At lower densities, cultivation is more satisfactory.

2889. Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta.. 1947. Annual report. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #269.
Weed response to 2,4-D - perennials; alfalfa by fertilizer experiments - hay yield over 4 T/ac, responded to P,S; wheat yields after 7 yr alfalfa responded to S and ammonium sulfate; yields up to 68 bu/ac. T: weed response to 2,4-D.

2221. Goldstein, Walter A.. 1986. Alternative crops, rotations, and management systems for dryland farming.. Ph.D. dissertation, Agronomy and Soils, WSU.
This work covers a number of research areas, including the use of edible white lupine as an alternative crop, the use of black medic in rotation with spring peas and winter wheat (the PALS concept), performance of winter wheat as influenced by rotations, fertilization, and fumigation; rotational effects of medics; wheat interference with weeds; costs and returns of alternative systems; comparison of agronomic effects of conventional, organic, and biodynamic management. The PALS (perpetuating alternative legume system) concept was field-tested using a pea + medic - medic GM - winter wheat rotation with limited inputs of agrichemicals and tillage. This system was more economic using market prices of commodities at both a low and high yield level. With government support prices, the PALS system was competitive in the low yield situation, but not the high. Rotational effects appeared to suppress weeds in wheat with the medic compared to a continuous cereal system.

2809. Hume, L.. 1982. The long-term effects of fertilizer application and three rotations on weed communities in wheat.. Can. J. Plant Sci., 62:741-750.
The effect of fertilizer application and three rotations (continuous cropping, fallow-wheat, and fallow-wheat-wheat rotations)on the species composition of the weed community was examined using rotations that had been running for 21-22 yrs. Fertilizer application tended to reduce community differences between continuous cropping and short-term wheat-fallow rotations. With the use of 2- or 3-yr wheat-fallow rotations and herbicide application, weed problems can be minimized in southeastern Saskatchewan.

7028. USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1955. Joint Utah - Idaho Conservation Dryland Farming Guide.. .
Describes 3 basic rotations for the region: 1) grass/alfalfa - no more than 2 yr grain (Class IV land, precip. >17"); 2) grain - fallow - various rotations with alfalfa/grass or sweetclover depending on precip. (12-17"); 3) permanent grass/legume, with no more than 2 yr grain (precip 9-12", Class IV land); lists adapted grass and legume varieties; describes use of rotary hoe and skew treader for weed control. T: grass varieties.

7753. Young, Frank. 1989. Integrated pest management project update.. Paper presented at WA state weed conference, Nov. 13,1989.
This paper briefly describes the IPM weed study underway near Pullman, WA. This experiment uses field size plots for several rotation, tillage, and weed control treatments. Four years of research have been completed. Generally, the yield of spring cereals has not been affected by either weed management levels or tillage systems. Yields of spring peas were 17% greater with maximum weed management compared to the minimum level. Only three of the minimum tillage systems left sufficient residue cover to meet the 30% SCS requirement. However, all reduced tillage systems left more than 30% residue during the critical winter months. Yields of peas under conservation tillage were 13% greater than with conventional tillage, indicating the ability to reduce erosion potential with this crop and not suffer a yield penalty. No-till seeding has been successful either after spring wheat or spring peas, but not after the high residue of winter wheat.

8608. Young, F.L.. 1990. IPM systems research.. unpublished handout from USDA-ARS Weed Research Unit, Pullman, WA 99164.
The IPM Weeds study near Pullman, WA uses two 3-yr crop rotations, two tillage systems, and three weed management (herbicide) levels. Spring pea average yields after 3 yr were higher with chisel plow than with moldboard plow, slightly responsive to increased weed management level, and highest with maximum weed management/chisel plow combination.

9884. DeVault, G.. 1987. Whipping weeds, naturally.. The New Farm, May/June 1987, p. 36-37..
Instead of chemicals, a 3,000 acre dryland grain farm in Montana, uses crop rotation and timely cultivation to control weeds. After spring rains, they go over the fields with a chisel plow and rod weeder. At planting time, minimal weeding is done again with chisel-rod weeder. They summer fallow and alternate wheat and feed grains every third year and seed clover with spring-seeded grains. They have also reduced row spacing from 10 inches to 7 inches.

11048. Kirschenmann, Fred. 1992. Eradicating field bindweed: tillage, rotation knock out weed.. Northern Plains Sustainable Agriculture Society Newsletter, Jan. 1992, p. 5..
A complex rotation combined with timely tillage has been successful in controlling field bindweed and Canada thistle on a North Dakota farm. A five year rotation of oats/sweetclover-sweetclover green manure-spring wheat-buckwheat-winter rye has worked well.

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