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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, January 18, 2018

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2713. Hoppe, E.. 1956. Ecological studies of Bromus tectorum.. Technical Notes TN-38 Agronomy USDA-SCS, Spokane, WA.
Downy brome seed adapted to fall germination; has rapid spring maturity and deep root system to cope with summer drought; responds to nitrogen fertilizer; mowing gives inadequate control; very winter hardy weed; nearly all seeds germinate during first favorable season; seed buried >6 cm did not emerge; seedlings tolerate over 2 weeks of dessication if small enough; seed in storage retained viability over 11 yrs; a smut (Ustilago bullata) attacks early fall seedlings.

3036. Swan, D.G., M.M. Oveson, and A.P. Appleby. 1974. Chemical and cultural methods for downy brome control and yield of winter wheat.. Agron. J. 49:793-795.

3559. Kennedy, A.C., F.L. Young, and A.G. Ogg. no date. Control of downy brome and jointed goatgrass using soil bacteria.. unpublished report, USDA-ARS, PUllman, WA 99164-6421.
Naturally occurring soil bacteria were isolated that inhibited the growth of downy brome and jointed goatgrass, but not winter wheat. Over 5000 isolates were examined, and more than 50% were inhibitory to one of the weeds in laboratory growth. In a field test, plant population and above ground growth of downy brome were reduced 31% and 53% respectively. The bacteria were active at cool temperatures, an advantage in suppressing the weed after fall emergence. The bacteria are viewed as an adjunct to herbicide control, as their suppression is not enough to prevent economic crop loss. However, the lack of available herbicides for goatgrass makes this potential control very important. Proper application methods to insure organism survival are yet to be worked out.

4096. Massee, T.W. and R.E. Higgins. 1977. Downy brome (cheatgrass) control in a dryland winter wheat-fallow rotation.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #371.
Weed life cycle similar to winter wheat. One weed per sq ft reduces yield 4%. Three control practices: early tillage of fallow to increase fall weed germination; rodweed before planting; plant wheat after mid-September. Weed uses soil moisture before wheat. Wheat yields were not decreased by late planting, but seeding rate was increased to 70 lb/ac. Tetonia station.

5735. Rasmussen, P.E. and C.R. Rohde. 1988. Stubble burning effects on winter wheat yield and N utilization under semiarid conditions.. Agronomy J. 80:940-942.
Burning vs. not burning was examined at 3 nitrogen levels over 6 years (3 crops). Burning had no effect on grain yield or grain N uptake. Burning increased straw yield when wheat was fertilized by N, but had no effect on straw N uptake. Burning did not decrease foot rot incidence or severity, but did reduce downy brome density. T: Effects of stubble burning and N fertilization on grain and straw of winter wheat 1980-85. Effect of stubble burning on foot rot infection. Effect of stubble burning on downybrome infestation.

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