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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Monday, February 18, 2019

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356. Anon.. 1989. Fine-tuning mix water.. Agrichemical Age, October 1989.
Herbicide performance can be greatly affected by the quality of the tank mix water. Water-soluble post emergent herbicides, such as glyphosate and phenoxys, seem to be most sensitive. Three factors are important: water pH; cation concentration; and suspended solids. Post-emergent herbicides perform best when the tank mix is acidic. Optimum for phenoxys and glyphosate is pH 3-4. Hard water will reduce activity when herbicides are mixed and stored for many hours. Cation effects on deactivation are as follows: most severe - Fe++, Fe+++, Al+++; severe - Ca++, Zn++; moderate - Mg++; minimal - K+, Na+. Water with suspended dirt or organic matter will bind with many herbicides.

3021. Swan, D.G.. 1983. Weed control in winter wheat.. WSU Extension Service, Ext. Bull. #599.
Keep the problem from occurring. Use crop rotation, especially a spring crop, to upset the weed species cycle. Eradicate all new weed species before they spread. Keep weeds from producing seed in the field.

3029. Swan, D.G.. 1972. Weed control in winter wheat in eastern Washington.. Proc. 11th Br. Weed Control Conf., vol.2, p.681.
Bromoxynil, while less effective on some weed species, was the most selective herbicide. Diuron, linuron, and terbutryne frequently reduced yields on soils with less than 1.5% organic matter.

4331. McGill, Steve. 1990. Handling herbicide resistance in Russian thistle.. The Furrow (April 1990, NW edition).
Herbicide resistant biotypes of Russian thistle have been identified for Glean and Finesse. These herbicides can no longer be used alone for this weed. More tillage may have to be substituted in some situations, and implements which leave maximum surface residue are recommended. A heavy infestation of Russian thistle reduced yields of spring wheat 11% in a wet year and 55% in a dry year, so control is important for moisture conservation.

5039. Parker, R. and A.G. Ogg. undated. Crop bioassay for herbicide residues.. WSU Cooperative Extension Bulletin EB 1417.
A method for assessing herbicide carryover damage potential is outlined. Each sample requires 10 lb of soil from representative parts of a field. A non-treated check sample is advisable. Indicator plants are grown in containers for about 3 weeks. A chart of herbicides and the appropriate indicator plant is included. Where a susceptible crop must be planted, activated charcoal can be added to the soil as a spray and worked in. Rates range from 100-800 lb/ac depending on the chemical and the crop to be grown.

8608. Young, F.L.. 1990. IPM systems research.. unpublished handout from USDA-ARS Weed Research Unit, Pullman, WA 99164.
The IPM Weeds study near Pullman, WA uses two 3-yr crop rotations, two tillage systems, and three weed management (herbicide) levels. Spring pea average yields after 3 yr were higher with chisel plow than with moldboard plow, slightly responsive to increased weed management level, and highest with maximum weed management/chisel plow combination.

9790. Lee, O.C.. 1928. The wild morning glory: response to various herbicides and cultivation methods.. M.S. thesis, Washington State Collge, Pullman, WA.

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