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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Saturday, September 22, 2018

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154. Alberta Agriculture, Crop Protection Branch. 1989. Guide to crop protection in Alberta. 1988. Part II - Non-chemical control of weeds, insects, diseases for maximum economic yield.. Print Media Branch, Alberta Agriculture, 7000 - 113 St.,.
Alberta Agriculture's non-chemical guide to crop protection contains 28 pages of general advice on how to control weeds, insects, and disease in crops without chemical pesticides. This includes crop rotation, sanitation, crop competition, physical control, biocontrol, and field scouting. The rest of the book looks at specific pests and considers their life cycles, emergence, reproduction, management strategies, and control. Where available, tables of economic thresholds are included. This is an excellent reference for assessing potential alternatives to chemical pesticides for a large number of pests.

463. Anon.. 1989. The winds of change.. Agrichemical Age, November 1989.
Adoption of chem fallow has been slow in the northern Plains, being used only on about 20% of the acres. It is one of the best practices to prevent wind erosion in the region. Roundup with 2,4-D and atrazine has been the standard treatment. Now Command is labelled for this use, and Command/atrazine is another choice. Carryover problems with atrazine can be avoided if rates are kept below 1/2 lb/ac.

1387. Cony, Ann. unknown. First of kind natural herbicide reported.. Sacramento Bee (newspaper).
Richard W. Jones, of UC-Berkeley, reported the use of a natural, self-destructing herbicide capable of killing a wide variety of weeds. It is made from a common soil fungus Gliocladium virens which is artificially charged with nitrogen, thus causing it to produce a compound that is toxic to plant roots for about 2 weeks. The herbicide can kill plant roots as well, but it doesn't hurt plant stems. Thus timing and placement are crucial. The herbicide prevents germination and emergence of weed seedlings, and also produces an antibiotic that protects crop seedlings from rotting.

2424. Hannesson, H.A., R.N. Raynor, and A.S. Crafts. 1945. Herbicidal use of carbon disulfide.. Univ. California Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 693.
Temporary soil sterilant (6-8 wk). Studied diffusion and action of carbon disulfide in soils. Particularly effective on deep-rooted perennials. Requires hundreds of pounds per acre for effective treatment. Often a growth response to a following crop, due to S additions.

2862. Hurd-Karrer, A.M.. 1946. Relation of soil reaction to toxicity and persistence of some herbicides in greenhouse plots. USDA Technical Bulletin 911.
Deals with herbicides used prior to 2,4-D, such as sodium chlorate, sodium thiocyanate, ammonium sulfamate, borax. Initially, all herbicides were most toxic in acid soils, and least toxic in alkaline soils, and persisitence was similar. Borax was the most persistent. Nitrogen fertilizer did not reduce chlorate toxicity in a practical manner.

3200. Strand, L.L (ed.). 1990. Integrated pest management for small grains.. Univ. Calif. ANR Publ. 3333, Oakland, CA. 126 pp..
This publication is part of a series on major crops in California. It is a well-written volume with a wealth of information. There are many figures and pictures included to help in diagnosing pest problems. Cultural, biological, mechanical, and chemical controls are included.

4397. McKay, H.C., J.M. Hodgson, G. Ames and L.C. Erickson. 1959. Control Canada thistle for greater profits.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #321.
2,4-D proving to be effective, especially on more fertile soils; perennials in a dense stand for 3 years give adequate control; clean cultivation is quickest most effective method; used 11 treatments in the study; location St. Anthony, ID ; irrigated. T: effective control X treatment, yields

8332. Brosten, D. and B. Simmonds. 1990. Air booms stir the industry.. Agrichemical Age Aug/Sept 1990, p. 5, 18-19.
New sprayer technology using high air velocity and/or electrostatic charge has the potential to deliver pesticides more effectively to the target and reduce their use by 25-50%. These sprayers can often be used under much windier conditions than conventional units with minimal risk of drift. The electrostatic unit gives droplets a negative charge, and thus they are attracted and attached to the positively charged plants. Pesticide half-life may also be increased by the charge.

8617. Liebman, M. and R.H. Robichaux. 1990. Competition by barley and pea against mustard: effects on resource acquisition, photosynthesis and yield.. Agric., Ecosys., and Environ. 31:155-172.
A barley monocrop and a barley/pea intercrop suppressed growth and seed yield of two weedy species of mustard. The negative effects of N and light deficits on the mustard's photosynthetic performance were quantified. The negative effects could be partly overcome by application of N fertilizer or use of a pea cultivar that intercepted less light.

8917. Cutler, H.G. (ed.). 1988. Biologically active natural products: potential use in agriculture.. ACS Symposium Series 380. American Chemical Society, Washginton, D.C. 483 pp..
This technical volume highlights the biochemistry of a number of potential compounds derived from microbes, plants, or insects, that may have a role as a pesticide or plant growth regulator. Topics include screening for microbial herbicides, the role of glucosinolates, compounds from sea organisms, and chitin/chitosan products.

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