WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Wednesday, January 16, 2019


Browse on keywords: water quality WA

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Search results on 01/16/19

321. American Management Systems Inc., Arlington, VA. 1988. The literature review of ecological benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program.. Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation..
Primarily focuses on vegetated filter strip research and the recent ASCS ammendment to include farmland adjacent to water bodies in the CRP. This is an excellent reference for a potentially high payback technique which is in its infancy and which has extensive application for the Palouse.

356. Anon.. 1989. Fine-tuning mix water.. Agrichemical Age, October 1989.
Herbicide performance can be greatly affected by the quality of the tank mix water. Water-soluble post emergent herbicides, such as glyphosate and phenoxys, seem to be most sensitive. Three factors are important: water pH; cation concentration; and suspended solids. Post-emergent herbicides perform best when the tank mix is acidic. Optimum for phenoxys and glyphosate is pH 3-4. Hard water will reduce activity when herbicides are mixed and stored for many hours. Cation effects on deactivation are as follows: most severe - Fe++, Fe+++, Al+++; severe - Ca++, Zn++; moderate - Mg++; minimal - K+, Na+. Water with suspended dirt or organic matter will bind with many herbicides.

433. Anon.. 1980. Groundwater quality in North Idaho.. USGS Water Resources Investigations Open File Report 80-596.
Map shows sites tested for nitrate nitrogen and resulting ranges; very few values above 1ppm.

1095. Brown, D.B., D. McCool, R. Papendick, and L. McDonough. 1985. Herbicide residues from winter wheat plots: effect of tillage and crop management.. J. Environ. Science 14:521-532.
Studied the magnitude and persistence of residues of metribuzin and bromoxynil octanoate in winter wheat plots under various tillage management. Herbicide loss was greatest where erosion was high. Herbicide runoff was extended under winter conditions in eastern WA, and there was little movement or degradation of herbicides when the ground was frozen. The half life of metribuzin was 102-112 days.

1308. Choi, K.L., S.S. Que Hee and R.G. Sutherland. 1976. 2,4-D levels in the south Saskatchewan river in 1973 as determined by a GLC method.. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Bll(2), 175-183.
2,4-D levels in the South Saskatchewan River near Saskatoon in 1973 at the height of the spraying season, and at harvest time were determined by a method involving direct GLC analysis, alkaline hydrolysis, followed by n-butylation of the liberated free acid after acidification of the alkaline solution, and confirmed by subsequent n-octylation. GC/MS also confirmed the presence of 2,4-D. 2,4-D was detected during the spraying season but not at harvest time or in river mud samples. The average level was ca. 2ug of acid equivalent to 2,4-D per liter of river water at the height of the spraying season.

1458. Cotton, W.R.. 1982. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater near Pullman, WA.. MS Thesis WSU.
Wells were tested in 1981. 65 wells were sampled, all locations recorded. They could be potentially sampled again. Elevated nitrates in spring water, not in main aquifers. T: chemical analysis, nitrates.

1485. Crosby, J.W. and R.M Chatters. 1965. Water dating techniques as applied to the Pullman-Moscow groundwater aquifer. WSU College of Engineering Research Division Bull. #296.
Most groundwater dates from late Pleistocene glaciation. No measurable recharge in Moscow area in recent times. Pullman area has about 108 million gal/yr recharge, roughly 10% of current (1965) useage. Indicates low likelihood of ag chemical movement to primary aquifers. T: date analysis for specific wells.

2163. George, G.O.. 1981. Best management practices (BMP) demonstration and evaluation project.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report #623, p.43-44.
In 1979, the program was expanded to evaluate recognized Best Management Practices (BMP's) and demonstrate their impacts on water quality. All terraces will reduce erosion and sediment and improve water quality, but may not bring soil losses within tolerance limits. Stubble mulch and conservation tillage will reduce water pollution by keeping erosion from initiating during low rainfall or runoff conditions. Conservation practices are more effective in keeping soil losses within established tolerance limits than terraces. They are not as effective in removing sediment pollutants as the terrace once sediment is picked up by the runoff water. Grassed waterways and stream buffer strips reduce sediment delivery to streams, but have little or no impact on in-field erosion. Where combinations of practices were utilized and measurements were made there was decidedly less erosion and, therefore, less sediment for water pollution.

3383. Jennings, M.D. and J.P. Reganold. 1988. Policy and reality of environmentally sensitive areas in Whitman County, WA.. Environmental Management, 12(3):369-380.
A representative watershed within Whitman Co. was used as a case study to identify areas which would qualify for ESA status. In these areas, specific soil, water, and biological characteristics or resources were identified as sensitive to certain common land uses. Significant differences were found between state and county policies regarding ESA's and actual conditions within the watershed. On-site impacts from erosion in the watershed have caused loss of agricultural productivity, water quality, and natural habitats. At least 7.2 T/ha soil eroded for each T grain or pulse produced in Thorn Creek watershed. Average annual suspended sediment loads in surface waters of the Palouse river basin (including Thorn Creek) were 2950 mg/l between 1961 and 1965. 87% of soils within Thorn Creek watershed meet criteria for highly eroded land. Less than 10% of Thorn Creek watershed supports native or exotic noncrop vegetation. Conversion of the watershed to croplands has resulted in a well-defined pattern of upland islands (eyebrows) and wetland corridors, which are the only places where plant and animal species diversity can occur. Existing natural areas within the watershed are degraded in terms of original ecosystem structure, function and size. Effective legal conservation-related land-use considerations should be made if soil, water, and natural habitat resources as identified in this study are to become sustainable. T: T values and percent area for major soil series in Thorn Creek watershed. Features of Thorn Creek subwatersheds.

3401. Johnson, L.C. and M. Molnau. 1975. Hydrograph and water quality relationships for two Palouse cropland watersheds.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Research Bull. #87.
Nitrate levels in streamflow appear linked to sub-surface drainage; high rates of surface runoff diminished nitrate levels. T: streamflow, water analysis.

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