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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Saturday, October 20, 2018

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Search results on 10/20/18

935. Bolton, F.E.. 1990. Starter fertilizer trials - no-til.. Sherman Station Field Days, OSU, Moro, OR.
The use of starter fertilizer, including N, P, and S in various combinations, was examined for no-till winter wheat and winter barley. Variable results occurred, but yield increased were measured in most years. About 3 out of 5 times, the increase was economically feasible. Overall yields under no-till averaged equal to or slightly lower than conventional tillage.

3705. Koehler, F.E.. 1979. Soil fertility management under no-till and minimum tillage systems.. Proc. 13th Ann. Fertilizer Conf. NW, Spokane, WA, July 1979.
Slower residue decomposition, cooler soil temperature under reduced tillage; mostly effects N,P,S; best results with banded fertilizer; more weed growth with broadcast fertilizer; spring wheat most sensitive to fertilizer placement. T: fertilizer X yield, placement

8323. Cook, R.J.. 1990. presentation at Palouse Cons. Farm field day. .
A new combination of cropping practices appears to solve some disease problems in continuous wheat culture. Wheat straw is not toxic to wheat plants, but keeps the soil moist and favors disease. Cook suggested the following system: no-till, paired row, fertilizer placed beneath each row. The fertilizer shank disturbs the soil and inhibits certain disease organisms. Each plant has easy access to fertilizer beneath, and the P helps the seedling grow out of disease injury that may occur. P also stimulates root growth. The paired row opens up the canopy to some drying, which stops take-all and Rhizoctonia. This system is working in continuous no-till winter wheat in Pullman, and is also working in continuous no-till spring barley at Lind, WA. Cook suggested its use in the intermediate rainfall area. The fertilizer is placed at 5" depth and the seed at 1.5".

9658. Klepper, B., P.E. Rasmussen and R.W. Rickman. 1983. Fertilizer placement for cereal root access.. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation (May/June) p. 250-252..
Conservation tillage, which involves surface crop residue often results in seedbed and near-surface soil environments that are not always as suitable as they might be for growth of cereal grain seedlings. Microbial decomposition of surface residue or partially incorporated residue immobilizes mineral nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Placing fertilizer deep in the soil usually offsets the immobilization effects some, but proper location is important for maximum root access by young plants. Small amounts of starter fertilizer can be banded with the seed. Applying the entire crop requirement, however, may delay or stop seed development. Fertilizer injury to roots - Placement of fertilizer too close to a seed can delay emergence and injure seedling. The injury is usually to the tips of the first three seminal roots. Optimum fertilizer placement - Farmers should place nutrients below residue accumulation zones for most efficient crop use. A distance of 3 to 5 cm below and up to 5 cm to one side is sufficient in a silt loam soil.

9764. Varvel, G.E., J.L. Havlin and T.A. Peterson. 1989. Nitrogen placement for winter wheat in three fallow tillage systems.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53:288-292.
Increased soil water storage with increasing amounts of surface residue in winter wheat-fallow cropping systems has not consistently resulted in higher grain yields in the Great Plains. Earlier results had suggested increased amount of surface residue may increase N immobilization and limit N availability, thereby reducing potential for use of the additional stored soil water. This study was conducted to determine if N placement below the zone of organic matter or surface residue accumulation would reduce N immobilization and increase yields.

10225. Rasmussen, P.E. and H.P. Collins. 1991. Long-term impacts of tillage, fertilizer, and crop residue on soil organic matter in temperate semi-arid regions.. Advances Agronomy 45:93-134.
Organic matter is an important soil component in semi-arid regions. Virgin grassland soils lose organic matter rapidly upon first cultivation, with the greatest decline in the first 10-20 years. A new equilibrium is usually established after 50-60 years. Long-term experiments or paired comparisons are needed to evaluate change in organic matter due to managment. Organic matter loss is greater with increasing frequency of fallow and intensity of tillage. Conservation tillage generally increases organic matter, and results from studies worldwide are presented. N fertilizer generally leads to higher organic matter, since it boosts biomass production. About 18% of the applied N at Pendleton was incorporated into the organic fraction in a wheat-fallow system. Amount of crop residue influences organic matter levels far more than type of residue. Organic matter increases linearly with increasing residue additions. Semi-arid soils can sequester from 10-25% of the C added. Many agricultural soils are not receiving sufficient C additions to prevent continued organic matter loss under current management.

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