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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Sunday, December 16, 2018

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Search results on 12/16/18

10030. Allen, R.R. and C.R. Fenster. 1986. Stubble-mulch equipment for soil and water conservation in the Great Plains.. J. Soil Water Cons. 41(1):11-16.
This article provides an excellent coverage of the history of stubble mulch equipment from 1933 to present. Starting in 1933 with Hoeme's cultivators for deep primary tillage that left clods on the ground, Noble's (1936) undercutting tiller, and in 1939, Russell and Duley began experimenting with a tiller that would cut off weeds at subsurface while leaving straw residue on the surface. This became known as stubble-mulch tillage. With the use of stubble mulch tillage came the advent of shovel press drills and eventually air-seeders.

1503. Dalley, W.J.. 1970. Alternatives in machinery management on Juab County, Utah dry farms.. M.S. Thesis, USU, Logan, UT.
An economic study of farm size versus per acre equipment costs of production. Machine costs per acre of grain produced and total costs (fuel, labor, plus machinery) for the 3 size classes were, respectively: 100-500 ac. - $10.99, $16.27; 500-1000 ac. - $5.66, $10.25; 1000-2000 ac. - $3.21, $7.13.

7434. Walter, D.T.. 1987. Early studies on the use of legumes for conservation tillage in Nebraska.. IN: J.F. Power (ed.). The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems. p. 9-10.
Describes early research beginning in the 1930s. Surface residues, especially alfalfa, improved soil structure and infiltration. Erosion and runoff from dense, subtilled legume plots was minimal compared to oat or wheat stubble. Sweetclover and alfalfa were the principal legumes. Erosion and excess N mineralization were problems with sweetclover. Subtilling legume residues retarded decomposition and nitrification, increased earthworm casts, and enhanced aggregate stability. When sweetclover decomposed on the surface, 5-10 lb N/ac were lost as NH3, with only a trace lost when residue was plowed under.

8568. Anon.. n.d.. Spring-tine cultivator for conventional and organic farming methods.. promotional brochure, T. Hatzenbichler & Sons, Austria.
The spring-tine harrow is an implement used in Europe for mechanical weed control in field crops such as wheat. Recent preliminary field tests in Wisconsin found control to range from 40-90%. A similar implement may be available from Lindsay Bros. in Des Moines, IA. It reportedly does not perform well with much surface residue.

9962. Chilcott, E.C.. 1910. A study of cultivation methods and crop rotations for the Great Plains area.. USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 187. 78 pp..
This paper reports the results of a four-year experiment in crop rotation and cultivation methods conducted at eleven stations in the Great Plains area. Some of the questions asked of this experiment were how can the largest average yields of corn, spring wheat, oats and barley be obtained, do moisture conservation methods pay where continuous cropping to the same crop is practiced, and can green manuring be profitably substituted for summer tillage? The results found that a 3-year rotation of corn, wheat and oats gave the most profitable returns. Continous cropping with moisture conservation methods of fall plowing and fall, winter and spring tillage did not give results to warrant its recommendation. The most highly recommended practice was that of green manuring. For greatest benefits to the soil, it was recommended to plow in a green manure crop in early season, with little summer tillage, until wheat planting time.

10556. Follett, R.F. and D.S. Schimel. 1989. Effect of tillage practices on microbial biomass dynamics.. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 53:1091-1096.
Changes in microbial biomass dynamics and N cycling were studied in soils formed under grassland vegetation in western Nebraska, and farmed under wheat-fallow since 1970. Three tillage treatments were compared: no-till, stubble mulch, and moldboard plow. After 16 yr of cultivation, total N in the top 10 cm of soil had decreased to 73, 68, and 50% of native sod for the three tillages, respectively. Soil microbial biomass levels were decreased to 57, 52, and 36% for the respective tillages, compared to grass. CO2 respiration was proportional to microbial biomass, but N mineralization was not. It appeared that C availability for microbial growth declined with increased tillage intensity, which also decreased the soil's ability to immobilize and conserve mineral N.

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