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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, September 20, 2018

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1639. Dormaar, J.F., C.W. Lindwall, and G.C. Kozub. 1988. Effectiveness of manure and commercial fertilizer in restoring productivity of an artificially eroded dark brown chernozemic soil under dryland condit. Can. J. Soil Sci. 68:669-679.

2406. Hanley, Paul (ed.). 1980. Earthcare: Ecological agriculture in Saskatchewan.. Earthcare Information Centre.
A well-written text covering all aspects of biological farming in the prairie region of Saskatchewan. Practices apply to small and large farms. Includes reports from selected farms. References at the end of chapters.

2607. Hilander, S. (ed.). 1989. Proceedings of AERO's soil building cropping systems conference. December 7-9, Lewistown, MT. AERO, 44 N. Last Chance Gulch #9, Helena, MT 59601.
Summarizes the talks given at the conference. Much information is from Canadian researchers in Saskatchewan who are working on low water use legumes as fallow replacements.

3329. MacRae, R.J. and G.R. Mehuys. 1985. The effect of green manuring on the physical properties of temperate-area soils.. Advances Soil Sci. 3:71-94.
This is a review chapter focusing on the non-nutrient benefits of green manures (e.g. soil physical improvement, particularly for corn in temperate climates. Organic matter plays more of a role in aggregate stability than in aggregate formation. This occurs through the by-products of organic matter decomposition (microbial gums and mucilages). Low-N green manures (1.5% N or less) generally are more effective in building organic matter levels. While sweeping conclusions are difficult, the benefits of green manuring on crop yield are most apparent during dry periods, particularly in rainfed production systems.

8704. MacRae, R.J. and G.R. Mehuys. 1985. The effect of green manuring on the physical properties of temperate-area soils.. Adv. Soil Sci. 3:71-94.

5225. Pieters, A.J.. 1927. Green manuring: principles and practice.. J. Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 356pp..
An excellent early summary of green manuring, in America and around the world; discusses the crucial role of maintaining soil organic matter; describes many green manure plants and their uses wiht various crops in different regions; over 350 references are cited. T: nitrogen value of green manures, biomass.

5705. Rasmussen, P.E., H.P. Collins, and R.W. Smiley. 1989. Long-term management effects on soil productivity and crop yield in semi-arid regions of eastern Oregon.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 675.
Summary of over 50 years of plot research at Pendleton, OR, with some results from Weston and Moro. Focuses on results from a continuous set of plots at the Pendleton station. Manure maintained highest yields, highest soil organic matter, highest pH compared to other treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer had a more marked effect on water infiltration than various tillage treatments. Green manure systems are generally not economic in the drier areas, due to competition for moisture with wheat, which is the most profitable crop. Legumes can contribute between 40 and 80 lb/ac N to the following crop. Varietal improvement over the past 50 years has been the most significant factor in increasing wheat yields. Burning straw accelerated organic matter losses from the soil and eventually reduced yields. Marginal returns have generally been lower from alternative crops than from wheat.

5715. Rasmussen, P.E., R.R. Allmaras, C.R. Rohde and N.C. Roager, Jr.. 1980. Crop residue influences on soil carbon and nitrogen in a wheat-fallow system.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44(3):596-600.
Seven crop residue treatments were initiated in 1931 to measure long-term residue managements effects on soil organic matter in a wheat-fallow cropping system on Pacific Northwest semiarid soils. Organic carbon and total N were measured at approximately 11-yr intervals over a 45-yr period to determine residue effects on the rate of change in soil OM content. Only the addition of 22.4 metric tons of manure/ha to straw residue before incorporating prevented a decline in soil N and C. The addition of 45 or 90 kg fertilizer N or of 22.4 metric tons of pea vines/ha to straw residue before incorporation reduced N and C loss when compared to straw only incorporation. Burning of straw in the fall following wheat harvest accelerated the loss of N, but not C. Burning of straw in the spring just prior to tillage had no effect on N or C loss.

6248. Sievers, F.J. and H.F. Holtz. 1922. The silt loam soils of eastern Washington and their management.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #166.
A broad treatment of agronomy and soil management during 39 years of cropping 22% N and 35% OM has been lost. T: Comparison of nitrogen content of virgin soil and soil cropped 30 years. Organic carbon in virgin soil and soil cropped 30 years. Straw vs. nitrate development in Palouse silt-loam. High N residue as supplement to straw in nitrate development. Effects of manure on N and C in Palouse silt loam, 18 years of results. Effect of legumes on N and C.

6684. Stephens, D.E.. 1944. Effect of tillage and cropping practices on runoff, erosion, and crop yields in the wheat growing areas of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon.. USDA-SCS. Conservation practices on wheat lands of the Pacific Northwest..
An excellent summary of the dryland experiment station research in WA, ID and OR. Describes research on stubble mulching, tillage implements, crop rotations, fallow, etc. The use of sweetclover or alfalfa-grass were encouraged. T: yield, runoff, soil loss by tillage, rotation, fertilizer.

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