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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Friday, October 19, 2018

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Search results on 10/19/18

1710. Douglas, C.L., P.E. Rasmussen, L.L. Baarstad and R.R. Allmaras. 1984. Crop residue distribution by combines.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 713, p. 37-40.
Uniform distribution of wheat straw and chaff is necessary for success of conservation tillage programs. Results indicate that: a)standard factory-produced combines distributed straw and chaff unevenly in the field; b)straw-choppers did not automatically improve uniformity of distribution; c)a chaff spreading attatchment on a cylinder-type combine improved distribution significantly; and d)shop modification of flails on a rotary-type combine gave a nearly uniform distribution. Improvements on combines are seriously needed to assure the uniform straw and chaff distribution so necessary for successful adoption of conservation tillage systems. T: Straw distribution by cylinder and rotary combines.

3013. Stroo, H.F., K.L. Bristow, L.F. Elliott, R.I. Papendick, and G.S.Campbell. 1989. Predicting rates of wheat straw decomposition.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53:91-99.
Predicting the rate and extent of decomposition of residues at the soil surface is necessary to evaluate the impacts of minimum tillage practices on erosion control and thus ensure the most effective use of residues. A mechanistic model simulating the decomposition of surface-managed winter wheat residues was developed and model predictions were compared to results from field studies of decomposition rates.

5245. Pikul, J.L. and R.R. Allmaras. 1986. Physical and chemical properties of a haploxeroll after fifty years of residue management.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 50(1):214-219.
Greater inference about the value of long-term crop residue management requires that soil chemical properties be measured together with soil physical properties. After 54 yrs of several different crop residue management treatments in a winter wheat-fallow system in the PNW, soil bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water desorption curves, soil organic carbon, and soil pH were all used to quantify the soil physical and chemical state. Quality of certain soil physical and chemical properties were altered. Changes in soil compaction since 1931 appear to be limited to the top 30m. However, soil compaction was greatest in the control and fall burn treatments where organic carbon addition was lowest. Crop residue management and fertilization with NH4 base fertilizer has had a marked effect on soil pH in the Ap horizon.

5807. Reinertsen, S.A., L.F. Elliott, V.L. Cochran and G.S. Campbell. 1984. Role of available carbon and nitrogen in determining the rate of wheat straw decomposition.. Soil Biol. Biochem., 16(5):459-464.
The amount of N immobilized during wheat straw decomposition is dependent on the amount of available C from both the primary and secondary pools present in the straw.

8503. Traupman, M.. 1990 March. Mechanical earthworms.. New Farm, p. 12-14, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA.
The Aer-Way tool is used in the eastern U.S. to mix residue into the soil surface and balance air and water for good microbial action. The unit, a series of blades which can penetrate up to 7" deep, can replace a rotovator, disk, or cultivator. Improved tilth, less erosion, and reduced input needs are reported by farmers using the tool.

10700. Smith, J.L. and L.F. Elliott. 1990. Tillage and residue management effects on soil organic matter dynamics in semiarid regions.. Advances Soil Science 13:69-88, Springer-Verlag, NY.
This chapter reviews studies worldwide on tillage and residue effects on soil organic matter, including properties affecting organic matter, effects on structure and nutrients, and strategies to maintain organic matter levels in semiarid regions. For example, stubble mulching doubled the infiltration rate and reduced runoff by 40% over stubble incorporation and 65% over stubble burning in Australia, leading to more stored moisture for crop use. Crop rotations including legumes represent one strategy for maintaining soil organic matter and productivity.

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