WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Tuesday, January 16, 2018


Browse on keywords: organic matter manure

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Search results on 01/16/18

2406. Hanley, Paul (ed.). 1980. Earthcare: Ecological agriculture in Saskatchewan.. Earthcare Information Centre.
A well-written text covering all aspects of biological farming in the prairie region of Saskatchewan. Practices apply to small and large farms. Includes reports from selected farms. References at the end of chapters.

2607. Hilander, S. (ed.). 1989. Proceedings of AERO's soil building cropping systems conference. December 7-9, Lewistown, MT. AERO, 44 N. Last Chance Gulch #9, Helena, MT 59601.
Summarizes the talks given at the conference. Much information is from Canadian researchers in Saskatchewan who are working on low water use legumes as fallow replacements.

5065. Patten, A.G.. 1982. Comparison of nitrogen and phosphorous flows on an organic and conventional farm.. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Agronomy and Soils, WSU, Pullman, WA.
Two adjacent farms, one organically managed and the other conventionally managed, located in the Palouse region of eastern WA, were studied for 2 years. Soil organic matter, total N, extractable P, and extractable K tended to be higher in the top 30 cm of soil from the organic farm. Mineral nitrogen in the top 30 cm of soil from the conventional farm was higher than or equal to that of the organic farm. Average long-term changes calculated in soil N and P pools resulted in substantial deficits of 44 and 14 kg/ha/yr, respectively, for the organic farm and 23 and 5 kg/ha/yr for the conventional farm. However, nutrients deficits were not reflected in lower soil N and P levels in the plot area tested on the organic farm as compared to the plot area on the conventional farm.

5225. Pieters, A.J.. 1927. Green manuring: principles and practice.. J. Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 356pp..
An excellent early summary of green manuring, in America and around the world; discusses the crucial role of maintaining soil organic matter; describes many green manure plants and their uses wiht various crops in different regions; over 350 references are cited. T: nitrogen value of green manures, biomass.

5715. Rasmussen, P.E., R.R. Allmaras, C.R. Rohde and N.C. Roager, Jr.. 1980. Crop residue influences on soil carbon and nitrogen in a wheat-fallow system.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44(3):596-600.
Seven crop residue treatments were initiated in 1931 to measure long-term residue managements effects on soil organic matter in a wheat-fallow cropping system on Pacific Northwest semiarid soils. Organic carbon and total N were measured at approximately 11-yr intervals over a 45-yr period to determine residue effects on the rate of change in soil OM content. Only the addition of 22.4 metric tons of manure/ha to straw residue before incorporating prevented a decline in soil N and C. The addition of 45 or 90 kg fertilizer N or of 22.4 metric tons of pea vines/ha to straw residue before incorporation reduced N and C loss when compared to straw only incorporation. Burning of straw in the fall following wheat harvest accelerated the loss of N, but not C. Burning of straw in the spring just prior to tillage had no effect on N or C loss.

6108. Schafer, E.G., E.F. Gaines and O.E. Burbee.. 1921. Cultural experiments with wheat.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #160.
Manure applied in spring before plowing, at 10T/ac, increased average yields by 2.2 bushels. Manure applied in the fall before plowing, at 10 T/ac increased average yields 14.2 bu. Early plowed and tilled summer fallow produced 11.8 bu. more than late plowed no tilled summer fallow. Average yield during the second 10 yrs of rotation periods was greater than the first 10 yrs of rotations. Continuous cropping of either spring or winter wheat decreased yields considerably during the second 10 yr period. T: Effect of manure on yield of wheat. Wheat grown in various rotations. Comparison of fall and spring plowing for yield of spring wheat.

6248. Sievers, F.J. and H.F. Holtz. 1922. The silt loam soils of eastern Washington and their management.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #166.
A broad treatment of agronomy and soil management during 39 years of cropping 22% N and 35% OM has been lost. T: Comparison of nitrogen content of virgin soil and soil cropped 30 years. Organic carbon in virgin soil and soil cropped 30 years. Straw vs. nitrate development in Palouse silt-loam. High N residue as supplement to straw in nitrate development. Effects of manure on N and C in Palouse silt loam, 18 years of results. Effect of legumes on N and C.

6545. Smith, V.T.. 1948. Green manure crops for Idaho farms.. U. of Idaho Ext. Circ. #105.
Estimates legume N contribution and dollar value: alfalfa - 260 lb N, $40/ac; sweetclover - 160 lb N, $24/ac; clover - 140 lb N, $21/ac; peas/beans - 50lb N, $7/ac; green manure provides nitrogen, improved soil condition, organic matter; results from 10 yr experiment; grow legume seed for cash crop.

6592. Sommerfeldt, T.G., C. Chang, and T. Entz. 1988. Long-term annual manure applications increase soil organic matter and nitrogen, and decrease carbon to nitrogen ratio.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52:1668-1672.
Studied the effects of long-term annual additions of cattle feedlot manure on the accumulation, decomposition, and movement of organic matter and total N. Significant increases in SOM and total N in the first 8 and 6 yr, repsectively, were limited to the surface 30 cm of soil of both the nonirrigated and irrigated land, and were similar on both fields. Tillage did not affect the amount of accumulation. The rates of accumulation decrease with years of application such that after two or three decades, increases will be small. A model was developed to predict changes and develop guidelines for land disposal of feedlot manure.

6720. Stephenson, R.E.. 1941. Humus for Oregon soils.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. #143.
Four tons of stable manure were equal in value to 5 tons of green manure plowdown. The humus renewal of 1 yr legume sod equaled the humus lost during 1 yr row cropping. Plant material should never be burned. Fresh additions of organic matter stimulate root developement. Alfalfa for soil building - 2/3 of roots left below plow layer. Pea green manure raised OM content by 0.2% after 4 crops. Prairie grass adds 4T/ac roots in 4" of soil. T: organic matter levels and changes.

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