WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

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1511. Davidson, J.M., G. Fenton and D.I. Pinson. 1967. Changes in organic matter and bulk density with depth under two cropping systems.. Agron. J. 59(4):375-378.
Measurement of BD and OM with depth after 24 years of continuous cotton and lespedeza were significantly different. The maximum compaction that could be given to a Reddish Prairie soil was directly related to its OM. Compaction was extremely sensitive to small changes in OM, caused by different cropping practices. This experiment should be repeated under wheat and alfalfa cropping in the Palouse. T: Average BD at 4 depth following 24 years continuous cotton and continuous lespedeza. Average OM at 4 depths following 24 years cotton vs. lespedeza. BD vs. soil water following a given load application. Maximum BD vs. OM.

1521. Davies, D.B.. 1977. Soil management. 3rd edition.. Farming Press Ltd., Suffolk..
Soil compaction increased chances of root disease (take-all, foot rot); problems of loss of soil structure; leads to reduced fertilizer use efficiency, especially N & P; winter cereals less sensitive to poor structure than spring cereals; 2-3 yr grass/alfalfa stand helps restore structure; benifits of subsoiling on silt soils; best time is when soil is dry.

3080. Tangren, G.V.. 1979. Subsoil bulk densities in some Whitman county small grain fields.. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Agronomy and Soils, WSU, Pullman, WA.

5245. Pikul, J.L. and R.R. Allmaras. 1986. Physical and chemical properties of a haploxeroll after fifty years of residue management.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 50(1):214-219.
Greater inference about the value of long-term crop residue management requires that soil chemical properties be measured together with soil physical properties. After 54 yrs of several different crop residue management treatments in a winter wheat-fallow system in the PNW, soil bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water desorption curves, soil organic carbon, and soil pH were all used to quantify the soil physical and chemical state. Quality of certain soil physical and chemical properties were altered. Changes in soil compaction since 1931 appear to be limited to the top 30m. However, soil compaction was greatest in the control and fall burn treatments where organic carbon addition was lowest. Crop residue management and fertilization with NH4 base fertilizer has had a marked effect on soil pH in the Ap horizon.

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