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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

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1360. Cochran, V.L., L.F. Elliott, and R.I. Papendick. 1982. Effect of crop residue management and tillage on water use efficiency and yield of winter wheat.. Agron. J. 74:929-932.

1608. Doneen, L.D.. 1934. Nitrogen in relation to composition, growth and yield of wheat.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #296.
On soil with adequate N, adding sodium nitrate retarded wheat growth. The carbohydrate - N ratio of plant tissue was not affected by fertilizer treatment or variety. Under extreme conditions (e.g. variations in N or moisture) there were considerable differences in varietal adaptations. The addition of N after normal tillering caused production of new tillers and increased yields. Fall fertilization led to higher water use and spring moisture deficit. T: many tables. e.g.: Composition of total sugar, non-coagulate nitrogen, amino N, and nitrate on wheat grown under various soil treatments. Yield of grain and straw of wheat treated with sodium N. N removed from soil by grain and straw of wheat treated with different amounts of sodium N/ac. Yield of grain and straw of wheat treated with 500 lb. sodium N/ac.

2088. French, R.J. and J.E. Schultz. 1984. Water use efficiency of wheat in a mediterranean-type environment. II. Some limitations to efficiency.. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 35:765-75.
Water use efficiency and yield of wheat are reduced by insufficient leaf area and by inadequate content of nutrients in the top growth. Yields from field trials are compared with the potential yield, and a review is made of the limitations caused by weeds, the incidence of diseases and the harvest index.

5215. Pierce, F.J. and C.W. Rice. 1988. Crop rotation and its impact on efficiency of water and N use. p. 21-42.. IN: W.L. Hargrove (ed.). Cropping strategies for efficient use of water and nitrogen..
Crop rotations are viewed as beneficial, but not always economic, as long as commercial N supplies are unrestricted. True assessments of crop rotations are difficult due to their long term nature and indirect results. True assessments will only be obtained when all N pools are considered. There is a real lack of research that has determined either water or N use, and interaction as determined by crop rotations. The problem is one of funding and methodology. T: Distribution of organic N after 17 yr rotation.

5964. Rosenberg, N.J.. 1981. Weatherproofing crop production.. IN: L.E. Slater and S.K. Lovin (eds.). Climate's Impact on Food Supplies..
The use of reflectants on plants and soils to reduce evapotranspiration under drought conditions.

7850. Koala, S.. 1982. Adaptation of Australian ley farming to Montana dryland cereal production.. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Plant and Soil Sci., Montana St. Univ., Bozeman, MT 59717.
This study examined the potential to adapt the ley farming system used in Australia to dryland cereal production in Montana. The ley system alternates a grain crop with a self-seeding forage legume. The legumes tested in this study included 5 Australian medics, 7 subclovers, 2 lupins, fababean, and a native Montana black medic. One full cycle of the system was completed. All grain yields (spring wheat) were higher after the legumes than after fallow. Soil water to 120 cm was similar in all plots at wheat planting. The black medic treatment had the highest water use efficiency (100 kg grain/cm) and fallow the lowest (55 kg grain/cm). There were higher levels of soil nitrate after the legumes than after fallow. Re-establishment of the legumes after wheat ranged from 3 to 93% ground cover, with black medic being the highest. Overall, black medic from Montana performed best in this study.

8887. Brown, P.L.. 1971. Water use and soil water depletion by dryland winter wheat as affected by nitrogen fertilization.. Agronomy J. 63:43-46.
Ammonium nitrate was fall applied at rates of 0, 60, and 240 lb N/ac. Water use by winter wheat increased with increasing N rate, and grain yields were 24, 46 and 54 bu/ac respectively. Water use efficiency increased with the 60N rate but slightly decreased with the 240N rate.

9359. Gardner, W.R. and H.R. Gardner. 1983. Principles of water management under drought conditions.. Agricultural Water Management 7:143-155..
In rainfed agriculture the options for water management are much more limited than for irrigated agriculture and the management tools available to the farmer are few. The major variable at his disposal is the selection of the crop to be grown. The economic return per unit of water is the major factor to be considered. This usually implies the maximum possible ratio of grain or other harvested plant part to total dry matter. When the rainfall is just below the amount needed for maximum dry matter production, this maximum can be achieved through appropriate manipulation of the plant population. The optimum population depends both upon the characteristics of the plant and the amount and distribution of the precipitation. When the amount of precipitaiotn is significantly less than about 25% of the optimum, then other management approaches are required. A widespread solution to this problem has been summerfallowing. However, in certain circumstances some variation on surface water management or water harvesting may be more advantageous. Criteria for decision making for optimum production under dryland conditions are given.

10844. Tanaka, D.. 1989. Spring wheat plant parameters as affected by fallow methods in the northern Great Plains.. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 53:1506-1511.
Chem fallow was compared to stubble mulch and reduced tillage in a spring wheat-fallow rotation. Average surface residue prior to planting was three and two times greater than reduced tillage for chem fallow and stubble mulch, respectively. Chem fallow plots stored more soil water, but this did not increase yield during the study. During years of crop stress resulting from limited soil water, chem fallow may produce higher yields than stubble mulch. Grain water use efficiency was greater for wheat grown on stubble mulch plots than on chem fallow plots.

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