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Friday, December 14, 2018

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1720. Douglas, C.L., R.E. Ramig, P.E. Rasmussen and D.E. Wilkins. 1987. Residue management: small grains in the Pacific Northwest.. Crops and Soils Magazine, Aug./Sept., p.22-24.
Lack of water usually limits production in dryland cropping areas of the inland Pacific Northwest (WA, OR, ID). Precipitation is frequently insufficient during the growing season; thus, it is necessary to rely on stored soil water for cropping. Annual precipitation is unevenly distributed with approximately 65% occurring between November and March when soils may be frozen. Conventional tillage systems in the steeply rolling areas of Idaho, eastern Wash. and eastern Oregon result in high soil erosion rates which will eventually make it impossible to sustain high levels of crop production. Enough surface residue (normally 1 T/ac) must be left after fall seeding to control winter soil erosion and to sustain current production. Cereal residue management in the Pacific Northwest must begin at harvest of the previous crop. Uniform distribution of residues behind a combine eliminates chaff rows which shelter rodents and weeds, and create physical barriers to herbicide application and cereal growth. Fertilizer banding is necessary to reduce its use by shallow rooted weeds and the immobilization of certain nutrients by microorganisms. Equipment design must allow seeding and fertilizing through large amounts of surface residues.

2088. French, R.J. and J.E. Schultz. 1984. Water use efficiency of wheat in a mediterranean-type environment. II. Some limitations to efficiency.. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 35:765-75.
Water use efficiency and yield of wheat are reduced by insufficient leaf area and by inadequate content of nutrients in the top growth. Yields from field trials are compared with the potential yield, and a review is made of the limitations caused by weeds, the incidence of diseases and the harvest index.

3230. Farrell, F.D.. 1909. Dry-land grains in the Great Basin.. USDA Bureau of Plant Industy, Circular 61.
This study was conducted for two years at a farm in Juab County, Utah. Average annual rainfall is 14.43 inches. The farm site was part of a larger, six farm study that was conducted for seven years. The results of the study found fall plowing preferred to spring plowing. Plowing to a depth of 7 to 10 inches gave satisfactory results, but under certain conditions subsoiling to 18 inches gave beneficial results. The importance of shallow, frequent and timely cultivation was found necessary to adequately prepare seed bed, conserve moisture and eradicate weeds. It was recommended that seed be of the best variety, treated with formalin to prevent smut, and planted in the early fall, for greatest yields. Fallowing in alternate years was also suggested for greatest yields. For more information on this study, see Bulletin 112 by Lewis A. Merrill.

3917. MacDonald, W.. 1911. Dry-farming: its principles and practices.. Century Publ. Co., N.Y..
General narrative and historical account. Chapters include: Soils; soil management; storing water in soil; fallowing; crops; soil fertility; drought. Explains the Campbell system of dry farming.

4086. Massee, T.W. and H. McKay. 1979. Improving dryland wheat production in eastern Idaho with tillage. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #581.
Stubble increased snowcatch and wheat yields; fall chiseling increased water infiltration and wheat yields; burning straw decreased yields after 6 yrs; row seeding a response up to 50 lb/ac N; research done at Tetonia; early fall seeding gave highest potential yield, but more disease and weed problems; annual cropping is possible when stored soil moisture exceeds 3 1/3 feet. T: tillage X moisture, yields

4827. Nelson, E.. 1908. Dry farming in Idaho. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #62.
Caldwell, ID - better sites yield 30-40 bu/ac wheat, even 60; alfalfa - several cuttings; drier sites yield 20-30 bu/ac; in Utah, 1" of rain stored in soil produces 2.5 bu wheat; summerfallow necessary; eastern WA - late spring plowing with early disking and harrowing is effective weed control; "slicker" - homemade tool in Columbia Basin to kill weeds; Subsurface packer - after plowing, increased yields in Columbia Basin 25%. Idaho soils - short on N and humus; alternate crop possibilities: milo, sorghum, field peas, alfalfa, grass; also spring emer (speltz), hulled wheat (adapted to arid conditions); WW vs. SW has 4-5 bu/ac yield advantage.

4876. Noori-Fard, F. and F.E. Bolton. 1982. The effect of water injection on stand establishment components.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 661, p.16-18.
Dry seedzone conditions are generally more prevalent with no-till cropping systems, but they also occur in stubble mulch cropping systems. Planting into inadequate seedzone moisture will result in delayed crop emergence and reduced stand density. Field studies were conducted to examine the effect of water injection with the seed on stand establishment and its related components. Water injection significantly increased the emergence and developement of winter wheat planted into a dry seedzone. During three field seasons, water injection with the seed has consistently demonstrated its effectiveness as an aid to plant emergence and stand development.

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