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11126. Rasmussen, V.P. and R.L. Newhall. 1991. Dryland tillage demonstration /research plots.. Agri-hint Series 109, Coop. Ext., Utah State Univ., Logan..
Seven cropping systems are being compared to determine fallow efficiencies and erosion potentials. The annual crop system outyielded the crop-fallow systems in the two years of study.

3230. Farrell, F.D.. 1909. Dry-land grains in the Great Basin.. USDA Bureau of Plant Industy, Circular 61.
This study was conducted for two years at a farm in Juab County, Utah. Average annual rainfall is 14.43 inches. The farm site was part of a larger, six farm study that was conducted for seven years. The results of the study found fall plowing preferred to spring plowing. Plowing to a depth of 7 to 10 inches gave satisfactory results, but under certain conditions subsoiling to 18 inches gave beneficial results. The importance of shallow, frequent and timely cultivation was found necessary to adequately prepare seed bed, conserve moisture and eradicate weeds. It was recommended that seed be of the best variety, treated with formalin to prevent smut, and planted in the early fall, for greatest yields. Fallowing in alternate years was also suggested for greatest yields. For more information on this study, see Bulletin 112 by Lewis A. Merrill.

3240. Widtsoe, J.A.. 1908. The storage of winter precipitation in soils.. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 104, Utah State Univ., Logan, UT.
The storage of winter precipitation was compared between an irrigated farm and six non-irrigated farms in Utah, to determine what proportion of winter precipitation is actually stored in the soil. In the top eight feet, average maximum amounts of winter precipitation stored for five years on an irrigated farm was 82% and for three years on non-irrigated farms the winter precipitation stored was 62%. It was concluded that enough water for dryland farming will be stored in the soils when fallowing is practiced every other summer.

5396. Jackson, G.D. and J.R. Sims. 1977. Comprehensive nitrogen fertilizer management model for winter wheat.. Agron. J. 69:373-377.

5725. Rasmussen, V.P. and R.L. Newhall. 1989. High residue conservation tillage increases soil moisture and profits. IN: Utah Agricultural Statistics, 1989. p. 121-124. Utah Agricultural Statistics Service, Salt Lake City, UT.
Three years of data are reported for several locations comparing a number of consevation tillage and cropping systems. The no-till and chemical fallow were better both for conserving soil and moisture, and generated the highest net returns. The chem fallow conserved about 1-2 inches of soil moisture. Erosion under the no-till chem fallow ranged from 1-5 T/ac compared to 17-30 T/ac with conventional tillage. The study included tests of continuous cropping, but more years are needed to make an economic comparison.

5751. Redinger, G.J., G.S. Campbell, K.E. Saxton, and R.I. Papendick. 1984. Infiltration rate of slot mulches: measurement and numerical simulation.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:982-986.

9460. Luebs, R.E.. 1983. Water conservation: Pacific Southwest. p. 125-136.. IN: Dryland Agriculture. Agronomy Monograph No. 23, Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI..
Agricultural drylands of the Pacific Southweat are generally described as arid or semiarid. For discussion here, the Pacific Southwest includes the states of Arizona, California, Nevada, and that part of Utah south of an imaginary line extending from the southern Wyoming boundry to Nevada. Rainfall is below the threshold needed for dryland crop production over most of the fourstate area, and evaporation is high. Small grain cereals predominate as dryland crops in the Pacific southwest as they do in other areas of the western USA, although the particular cereals and varieties as well as growing season are different in the different seasons. Topics covered in the article are: Soils, Precipitation characteristics, Conservation of water from precipitation, Summer Fallow, Stubble Mulch, Water Harvesting, Terracing, Snowmelt control and Future Research.

9386. Harris, F.S. and A.F. Bracken. 1917. Soil moisture studies under irrigation.. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin No. 159, Logan, UT..
Summary 1. This bulletin contains results of several thousand moisture determinations of cropped and uncropped soil during a number of years under irrigation. 2. Important literature bearing on the subject is reviewed. 3. A great similarity was found in the content and distribution of moisture in soil producing potaoes and sugar beets. 4. The efficiency of water decreased with the amount applied. On beets and potatoes, 1 inch weekly showed a higher increase in moisture to a depth of 10 feet in proportion to the amount applied than either 2.5, 5, or 7.5 inches weekly. It also gave a higher yield of the crops. 5. The initial per cent of moisture in the soil affected the distribution of the water applied by irrigation. 6. Furrow irrigation was more effective in conserving moisture than an earth mulch. 7. The lateral movement of moisture in the soil after an irrigation was slow, particularly in the upper feet. 8. A straw mulch was more effective in conserving moisture than an earth mulch. 9. On soil to which irrigation water was applied, cultivaton was more effective in conserving moisture than pulling the weeds, but where the soil was not irrigated, the soil retained as much water where the weeds were pulled as where the land was cultivated. 10. The crop was able to reduce the moisture to a depth of 10 feet. 11. The difference in the moisture of the cropped and the uncropped soil was decreased with an increase in the amount of irrigation. 12. Manure had very litte effect on the distribution of moisture in the soil. 13. The application of more irrigation water than is actually needed by the crop is a wasteful practice. 14. The farmer should study the moisture requirement of his soil and then try so supply those requirements as efficiently as possible.

9452. Larson, W.E., J.B. Swan and M.J. Shaffer. 1983. Soil management for semiarid regions.. Agricultural Water Management 7:89-114..
Water related climatic factors and soil physical and chemical properties exert a dominant effect on crop production in semiarid regions. Soil management practices which beneficially affect crop prodution by increasing water storage or through more efficient water use have been intensively studied at a number of locations with their associated soil conditions and under the climatic conditions encountered. The practical benefits of such research have been extensive. Computer-based simulation techniques permit the development of long and short term site specific soil management recommendations with expected results expressed on a probability basis. The research results from specific geographic locations measured under a specific set of climatic conditions can thus be generalized to a much wider range of soils and expressed on a probability basis using long-term climatic records. Examples are given where crop yield frequencies are computed as a function of long-term climatic conditions involving various management practices. These results illustrate the impacts of a range of residue management, deep tillage, and fallowing practices on crop production in the semiarid environment. The modeling techniques presented can be used with a range of models and potential management practices.

9827. Merrill, L.M.. 1910. A report of seven years' investigation of dry farming methods.. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 112, Utah State Univ., Logan, UT.
Bulletin 112 presents the results of a seven-year dryland farming study that was conducted on six farms, in six counties of Utah. The average annual rainfall over all locations during the study was 14.80 inches. The study looked at time and depth of plowing, time and depth of seeding, fallow vs. continual cropping, and crop varieties. Fall plowing, to a depth of 10 to 18 inches, produced greatest yields. Planting seed in the fall, at a shallow depth of 1 and 1/2 inches, also produced greatest yields. Annual summer fallow was found necessary for assurance of highest yields. It was also concluded that the wheat straw should be plowed under to enhance the water retaining capacity of the soil. For the initiation and set-up of this experiment, see Bulletin 91 by John A. Widtsoe and Lewis A. Merrill.

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