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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Saturday, September 22, 2018

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Search results on 09/22/18

2232. Grabe, D., F. Bolton, C. Garbacik, and J. DeNoma. 1989. Response of winter wheat to yield-enhancing agents.. Columbia Basin Agr. Research Spec. Report 840.
Tested a number of non-traditional products, including YEA!, Amplify-D, Car-Dak, Bio-Mag seed treat, seed moisturing. YEA! had a small but significant effect on seedling growth, while the other products did not. No yield responses were observed. Seed moisturizing with various pressure treatments did not appear to have any field benefits.

7633. Willis, W.O. and A.B. Frank. 1975. Water conservation by snow management in North Dakota. p. 155-162. IN: Proc. Snow Management on the Great Plains, Bismark, ND, July 1975..

3170. . 1988. International Symposium on Windbreaks Proceedings.. Agric. Ecosystems, Environ. 22/23.

3230. Farrell, F.D.. 1909. Dry-land grains in the Great Basin.. USDA Bureau of Plant Industy, Circular 61.
This study was conducted for two years at a farm in Juab County, Utah. Average annual rainfall is 14.43 inches. The farm site was part of a larger, six farm study that was conducted for seven years. The results of the study found fall plowing preferred to spring plowing. Plowing to a depth of 7 to 10 inches gave satisfactory results, but under certain conditions subsoiling to 18 inches gave beneficial results. The importance of shallow, frequent and timely cultivation was found necessary to adequately prepare seed bed, conserve moisture and eradicate weeds. It was recommended that seed be of the best variety, treated with formalin to prevent smut, and planted in the early fall, for greatest yields. Fallowing in alternate years was also suggested for greatest yields. For more information on this study, see Bulletin 112 by Lewis A. Merrill.

3917. MacDonald, W.. 1911. Dry-farming: its principles and practices.. Century Publ. Co., N.Y..
General narrative and historical account. Chapters include: Soils; soil management; storing water in soil; fallowing; crops; soil fertility; drought. Explains the Campbell system of dry farming.

6919. Unger, P.W.. 1975. Role of mulches in dryland agriculture. p. 239-258.. IN: U.S. Gupta (ed.). Physiological Aspects of Dryland Farming..

5622. Ramig, R.E., R.R. Allmaras and R.I. Papendick. 1983. Water conservation: Pacific Northwest. p. 105-124.. IN: H.E. Dregne and H.O. Willis (eds.). Dryland Agriculture. ASA Monograph 23..
Descriptions of tillage and summer fallow practices in 200-400 mm/yr precip. zones. Covers: fall, spring, summer tillages for summer fallow; weed control; time of planting. Also descriptions of conservation tillage practices in fallow such as stubble mulching, chemical fallow. Annual cropping is included and sections cover moldboard plowing, fall chiseling, cloddy seedbeds, no-till, slot mulching. T: precipitation and soil water storage for 3 tillages. Soil water evaporation rates.

6929. Unger, P.W., C.W. Lindwall, D.W. Anderson, and C.A. Campbell. 1989. Mechanized farming systems for sustaining crop production and maintaining soil quality in semiarid regions.. unpublished manuscript, USDA-ARS, Conservation and Production Research Lab, Bushland, TX 79012.
This review paper presents research results primarily from the Northern Plains, Southern Plains, Pacific Northwest, and Australia, addressing issues of soil quality and organic matter, erosion, water storage and utilization, and how these are affected by tillage choices, crop rotations, and other management aspects. Cultivation of semiarid soils generally leads to soil organic matter (SOM) losses of 40-60%, with most loss in the first 20 years. The active fraction of SOM will change faster than the total SOM. The fraction of N that is readily mineralizable decreased more quickly than total N, indicating a reduction in the nutrient-supplying power of the soil over time. Cultivation decreases the proportion of soil aggregates >1 mm. Dry-stable aggregates >0.84 mm are needed to prevent wind erosion. In the Northern Plains, about 60% of the precipitation falls in the May to August growing season. The crop-fallow system here is relatively inefficient at water storage, storing only 20-25% of the precipitation during the fallow period. Crop stubble is crucial to snow trapping and moisture retention. Alternating strips about 5 m. wide of tall and short stubble increased snow depth and density and resulted in 30% more water storage compared to a uniform medium-height stubble. No-till improved yields in many cases by increasing stored moisture, but suitable herbicides are necessary for weed control. Flex cropping in Montana was the most efficient system for using moisture. In the Central Plains, increased evapotranspiration makes ample surface residue very effective. Yields for wheat in a fallow system were more than double those for continuous wheat, making the fallow system more economic. In the Pacific Northwest, major losses result from runoff and from evaporation, due to capillary action in undisturbed surface soils. Water storage efficiencies were 50-75% during the first winter, and 10-50% during the second winter at Pendleton, OR. Surface residues resulted in greater evaporative losses during the summer. To control erosion, innovations such as the slot mulch system, the paraplow, and basin pitters (dammer-diker) have been used. The paper has an excellent list of references on dryland cropping.

8822. Brandle, J.R. and D.L. Hintz. 1987. An ill wind meets a windbreak.. Nebraska State Forester, Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0814.
Windbreaks are valuable for reducing soil erosion and lowering evaporative stress on crops, leading to higher yields. Crop yields begin to decline at a distance from the windbreak of about 5 times its height.

8831. Soil Conservation Service. 1990. Windbreaks and sustainable agriculture.. Fact Sheet - USDA-SCS.
Windbreaks don't cost, they pay. They reduce erosion, increase crop yields, improve water quality, and provide wildlife habitat. Yield increases due to windbreaks of 23% (winter wheat) to 100% (alfalfa) have been measured. There are other fact sheets on windbreaks discussing herbaceous barriers, erosion control, and economics.

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