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Tuesday, January 23, 2018

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483. Army, T.J. and J.C. Hide. 1959. Effects of green manure crops on dryland wheat production in the Great Plains area of Montana.. Agron. J. 51:196-198.
This paper summarizes the results from the green manure treatments which were a part of a 38-year study (1914-1951) of numerous small grain rotations involving wheat, barley, oats, corn, and fallow in various combinations. The rotation experiments were carried out at several Great Plains experiment stations including Havre, Huntley, and Moccasin, Montana, and Sheridan, Wyoming. The results indicated that winter rye, field pea, and sweetclover green manures had no effect at all or a depressing effect on small grain yields the following year as compared to ordinary fallow. The results of this unreplicated study are the most likely reason that research on dryland legume-cereal rotations essentially ceased in Montana until 1978. Although legume green manures, ideally, may impart several beneficial effects on ensuing cereal crops, the primary benefit is the release of symbiotically fixed nitrogen. The legume green manures in the long-term study at Moccasin and Huntley had little chance of improving wheat yields compared to ordinary fallow for several reasons. First, the soils involved, and most Montana soils indeed, had not yet become deficient in N as they are today. Organic matter had begun to decline by the 1950's but it still provided ample N to meet the needs of wheat yield potentials of that era. Also, the management of the legumes in these early studies is questionable as one passage from the report suggested that when the green manure crops were not successfully established, thee was invariably a good crop of Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.) to plow under. Possible other factors lending to their failure include inefficient storage of winter precipitation, late seeding, poor timing of plow down, and a lack of nodulation which continues to be a problem of dryland legume culture today, especially with small-seeded legumes. The above substantiate their conclusion that the main effect of the green manures was to reduce the water available to the ensuing grain crops. A re-examination of the Moccasin and Huntley, Montana data indicates that grain yields after green manures were slightly higher than grain yields after fallow for eight of the last ten years of the study.

602. Badaruddin, M., and D.W. Meyer. 1989. Forage legume effects on soil nitrogen and grain yield, and nitrogen nutrition of wheat.. Agron. J. 81:419-424.
Five forage legumes (annual alfalfa, perennial alfalfa, sweetclover, red clover, and hariy vetch) were evaluated as possible replacements for summerfallow in the northern Great Plains. Hard red spring wheat was grown after all plowdowns, and after wheat, and a fallow check. Legume species were not significantly different in hay yields, and root and crown N content across environments, although alfalfa and sweetclover had 35-83% greater N contents than other species. Soil nitrate N in the spring following legumes was greater than following fertilized wheat, but less than following fallow across environments. Grain yield and N uptake of wheat following forage legumes generally were equal to those following fallow, but greater than those following wheat. These results suggest that including 1-yr forage legumes in crop sequence would be a better option than fallow in the higher moisture areas. T: N content of forage leguems; wheat yields as influenced by previous crop; N efficiency

826. Bezdicek, D. and R. Lockerman. no date. Crop rotation and the response of cereal crops to nitrogen in the PNW. unpublished.
Experiments conducted at Pullman, WA and Bozeman, MT. Year 1 - legumes (rainfall -Pullman 500 mm, Bozeman 480 mm). Year 2 -Pullman winter wheat + N (rainfall 350 mm); Bozeman barley + N (rainfall 200 mm). Compared fababean, pea, lentil, chickpea, fallow at both locations. Pullman legumes were used as green manure, Bozeman legumes were harvested for seed. N fertilizer equivalents ranged from 30-86 kg/ha N at Pullman (fallow = 125) and from 27-81 kg/ha N at Bozeman (fallow = 53). All cereals responded to added N, although less so at Pullman. More N was removed in seed than was fixed. Seed legumes appeared to fix 50-100 kg/ha N. The rotation effect was more significant at Pullman. T: cereal yields; fertilizer N equivalent; moisture depletion.

3507. Kapoor, P. and P.S. Ramakrishnan. 1975. Studies on crop-legume behavior in pure and mixed stands.. Agro-ecosystems, 2:61-74.
In mixtures, an increase in the density of Trigonella polycerata resulted in an increased dry weight yield of the crop and only at very high densities of Trigonella was there an adverse effect of the weed on the crop. It is suggested that stimulation of the crop is related to nitrogen enrichment of the soil due to the nodular bacteria in the root of the weed.

3816. Ladd, J., J. Oades, and M. Amato. 1981. Distribution and recovery of nitrogen from legume residues decomposing in soils sown to wheat in the field.. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13:251-256.

4798. Nelson, A.L.. 1930. Methods of spring wheat tillage.. WY Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 173.
No spring wheat yield benefit was realized from having winter rye or peas as green manure in the rotation over 17 years. Some years it was observed that the green manure had not begun to decay a year after plowdown. For the first five years of the study, the pea green manure in rotation was superior to fallow preceding spring wheat. A 3-year rotation study found spring wheat to yield 23% more following dry beans compared to corn.

4377. McKay, H.C. and W.A. Moss. 1949. High protein wheat with conservation farming.. U. of Idaho Extension Bull. #181.
Emphasize need for legume - grass rotation to maintain soil productivity. Suggest a 7 yr sweet clover rotation or a 9 yr alfalfa rotation. Yellow sweet clover plus mountain bromegrass or slender wheatgrass; Ladak alfalfa plus smooth brome and big bluegrass (high rainfall) or crested wheatgrass (low rainfall); early spring seeding recommended without nurse crop; methods of establishment, plow sweetclover at 12-22" height; use sweetclover as a surface mulch to prevent erosion. T: soil moisture and sweetclover growth; wheat after sweetclover; yield and protein.

4962. Osenbrug, A. and O.R. Matthews. 1951. Dryland crop production on the clay soils of western South Dakota.. South Dakota Agr. Expt. Sta. Cir. 85.

7488. Wells, G.J.. 1970. Skeleton weed (Chondrilla juncea) on the Victorian Mallee: 2. Effect of legumes on soil fertility, subsequent wheat crop and weed population.. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb., 10:622-629.
This experiment has shown that, although wheat crops grown on skeleton weed infested land will give economic responses to applied nitrogen in seasons of adequate rainfall, the financial returns are likely to be much lower than if lucerne were included in the rotation. Therefore, sowing lucerne on arable land infested with the weed is not only a practical means of weed control, but also sound management, since it improves pasture production, soil fertility, and subsequent wheat yields on some of the poorest soil types in the Mallee.

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