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Tuesday, September 25, 2018

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602. Badaruddin, M., and D.W. Meyer. 1989. Forage legume effects on soil nitrogen and grain yield, and nitrogen nutrition of wheat.. Agron. J. 81:419-424.
Five forage legumes (annual alfalfa, perennial alfalfa, sweetclover, red clover, and hariy vetch) were evaluated as possible replacements for summerfallow in the northern Great Plains. Hard red spring wheat was grown after all plowdowns, and after wheat, and a fallow check. Legume species were not significantly different in hay yields, and root and crown N content across environments, although alfalfa and sweetclover had 35-83% greater N contents than other species. Soil nitrate N in the spring following legumes was greater than following fertilized wheat, but less than following fallow across environments. Grain yield and N uptake of wheat following forage legumes generally were equal to those following fallow, but greater than those following wheat. These results suggest that including 1-yr forage legumes in crop sequence would be a better option than fallow in the higher moisture areas. T: N content of forage leguems; wheat yields as influenced by previous crop; N efficiency

3935. Mahler, R.L., D.F. Bezdicek, and R. Witters. 1979. Influence of slope position on nitrogen fixation and yield of dry peas.. Agronomy J. 71:348-351.
Total seasonal N2 fixation estimates: bottomland - 69; south slope - 22; ridgetop - 17 kg N/ha. Pea yields were 2100 kg/ha for the bottomland and 480 kg/ha for the ridgetop, and were related to soil moisture depletion of 22 cm and 9 cm respectively. Greater plant N and DM were obtained in the greenhouse when peas were inoculated with Rhizobium isolates from the north slope when compared to other isolates. T: soil water depletion

4115. Mathers, A.C., B.A. Stewert and B. Blair. 1975. Nitrate-nitrogen removal from soil profiles by alfalfa.. J. Environmental Quality, 4(3):403-405.
Alfalfa was shown to be effective in removing nitrate from soil profiles deeper than the annual crop rooting zone. In spite of being a N-fixer, alfalfa will utilize nitrogen from the soil first. It can be used in rotation with annual crops to reduce groundwater contamination by agricultural applications of N. T: Nitrate-N removal from soil by alfalfa by depth.

4455. Meyer, D.W.. 1987. Influence of green-manured, hayed or grain legumes on grain yield and quality of the following barley crop in the Northern Great Plains. p. 94-95.. IN: J.F. Power (ed.). The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems..
Evaluates legume effects on spring barley in North Dakota. Legumes were either green manured, hayed, or harvested for the pulse crop in the seeding year. Green manure treatments produced unfertilized barley grain yields generally equivalent to yields following fallow, but significantly higher than yields following wheat. Yields following hairy vetch were the highest. Fertilized barley yields tended to be 12-15% higher following legumes than following wheat. Including legumes in the crop rotation increased the yield and protein concentration of the subsequent barley crop with reduced N fertilizer inputs. Green manured treatments were generally equal to fallow in grain yield.

7524. White, J.G.H.. undated. Grain legumes in sustainable cropping systems; a review.. unpublished manuscript, Plant Science Dept..
This paper briefly reviews the role that grain legumes can play in sustaining cropping systems. It presents various estimates of N fixation of grain legumes, with lupin and fababean showing the highest rates, followed by peas and lentils, chickpeas, and soybeans. Phaseolus beans are generally poor N fixers. Fababeans are more tolerant of soil mineral N than other species and will still fix large quantities of N when mineral N is present. Under drought stressed conditions, peas and lentils were more efficient in N fixation than fababeans. Only in lupins and fababeans was N fixation normally greater than the N removed in the seed. The roots and nodules of grain legumes are likely to be the greatest source of N for following crops. This N is often quickly mineralized within several weeks after harvest, and strategies are needed to prevent its loss. Grain legumes are also beneficial break crops, particularly for soil-borne diseases, and can help to control certain grassy weeds. Preceding grain legumes with a brassica crop has reduced the incidence of Aphanomyces root rot in peas, due to sulfur containing compounds. Most grain legumes suffer reduced yields if soils are compacted and poorly aerated. The paper contains numerous references and tables on nitrogen relations.

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