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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

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1248. Center for Alternative Crops and Products.. 1987. Grain legumes as alternate crops.. Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.
See especially section on lupines: world trade, cultural practices.

1765. Dunbar, B. and D. Nielsen. 1987. White lupins as a rotation alternative with winter wheat in conservation tillage systems.. IN: J.F. Power(ed.) The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems.
Tested white lupin adaptability to irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in Colorado. Screened the crop for a number of herbicides, none of which was entirely satisfactory. All damaged or killed the lupins at rates needed to control weeds. Non-irrigated yields were about 30 bu/ac, up to 50 bu/ac with full irrigation. Lupins did not appear to utilize stored soil water at lower depths.

2098. Frey, F.. 1989. Range of adaptation of lupins as a crop for organic agriculture.. IFOAM Bulletin No. 8, June 1989 p. 10-13.
Describes the "new world" and "old world" lupin species and their general characteristics. Lupins are used as a green manure/cover crop, forage, and grain. Some species are similar to soybean in protein. Others still have alkaloids that have to be removed before consumption. Lupins are now grown on 500,000 ha in Australia as a rotational crop. Their use has expanded in Brazil, also, particularly for soil protection and green manure. They can fix 80 kg N/ha.

2221. Goldstein, Walter A.. 1986. Alternative crops, rotations, and management systems for dryland farming.. Ph.D. dissertation, Agronomy and Soils, WSU.
This work covers a number of research areas, including the use of edible white lupine as an alternative crop, the use of black medic in rotation with spring peas and winter wheat (the PALS concept), performance of winter wheat as influenced by rotations, fertilization, and fumigation; rotational effects of medics; wheat interference with weeds; costs and returns of alternative systems; comparison of agronomic effects of conventional, organic, and biodynamic management. The PALS (perpetuating alternative legume system) concept was field-tested using a pea + medic - medic GM - winter wheat rotation with limited inputs of agrichemicals and tillage. This system was more economic using market prices of commodities at both a low and high yield level. With government support prices, the PALS system was competitive in the low yield situation, but not the high. Rotational effects appeared to suppress weeds in wheat with the medic compared to a continuous cereal system.

8849. Henderson, C.W.L.. 1989. Lupin as a biological plough: evidence for and effects on wheat growth and yield.. Austral. J. Exp. Agric. 29:99-102.
Effect of sowing density of blue lupin on a following wheat crop was studied on a compacted earthy sand. Lupin density ranged from 25-200 plants/m2. High density plantings were better able to alleviate compaction, although total luaapin biomass declined as density increased. The benefit to wheat grain yield from less compaction was estimated to be 100 kg/ac. This is small compared to nitrogen and rotation benefits. Other benefits of high density include reduced erosion, less disease, and better weed control.

10079. Cowie, A.L., R.S. Jessop, D.A. MacLeod and G.J. Davis. 1990. Effect of soil nitrate on the growth and nodulation of lupins (Lupinus angustifolius and L. albus).. Austral. J. Expt. Agric. 30:655-659..
The effect of increasing external nitrate concentration on the nodulation of Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius lines was examined in two sand culture experiments. In the first experiment four lines, three L. albus and one L. angustifolius, were grown at nitrate concentrations of 0, 2, 8, 16, and 30 mmol/L for 49 days. Increasing the nitrate concentration reduced nodule weight in all varieties to a similar extent. In a second experiment, 18 L. angustifolius lines were grown at nitrate concentrations of 2 and 8 mmol/L for 49 days. The ratio of nodule weights at the 8 and 2 mmol/L nitrate treatments varied widely, from 23 to 71%, between the lines. There appears to be potential for selection of L. angustifolius varieties able to maintain nitrogen fixation at increased levels of soil N.

10088. Cowie, A.L., R.S. Jessop and D.A. MacLeod. 1990. Effect of soil nitrate on the growth and nodulation of winter crop legumes.. Austral. J. Expt. Agric. 30:651-654..
The relative effect of increasing external nitrate supply on the nodulation of three winter crop legumes was examined in a controlled environment experiment. Lupin, chickpea and field pea were grown at two nitrate concentrations of 2 and 8 mmol/L for 40 days. Shoot and root growth were not affected by nitrate contrations. Increased nitrate concentrations significantly reduced nodule number and nodule weight in all species. The inhibition of nodulation by increased nitrate concentrations was greatest in peas, followed by chickpeas, and least in lupins.

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