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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, December 13, 2018

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Search results on 12/13/18

2190. Goldstein, W.A.. 1990. The potential of large-seeded sweetclover.. Michael Fields Agr. Institute, 3293 Main St., East Troy, WI 53120.
Sweetclover use declined rapidly in the 1960's due to the advent of nitrogen fertilizer, the use of 2,4-D, and the introduction of the sweetclover weevil (Sitona cylindricollis). At the time, breeding programs were underway, and 15 varieties were commercially available. Dr. Herman Gorz of the USDA-ARS at Lincoln, NE, did selection work on sweetclover and identified a large-seeded variety that may meet some of the needs today. The variety has high seedling vigor, can emerge from greater depths, can potentially be fall-seeded, matures earlier and may use less water, and is very competitive with weeds in its second year. It was also selected for resistance to pea and sweetclover aphids. A project is underway to renew evaluation of this germplasm and to test it in a living mulch system in the Great Plains.

4201. McCalla, T.M. and J.C. Russel. 1948. Nitrate production as affected by sweetclover residues left on the soil surface.. J. Am. Soc. Agron., 40(5):411-421.

4921. Oien, David. no date. Black medic information packet.. Timeless Seeds, RR 3 Box 461, Conrad, MT 59425.
This packet is sent to growers who purchase seed. The seeding rate is recommended at 8-10 lb/ac, planted 1/2" deep into a firm seedbed. Field trials have indicated successful medic establishment with barley, oats, spring wheat, and flax as nurse crops, but a second year of medic growth is then necessary for adequate seed production. On-going experiments in Montana (Jim Sims, MSU) are examining several rotations: medic-cereal, sweetclover-cereal, fallow-ceral, and continuous cereal, with different nitrogen rates. Results indicate that the green manures used 1-3" more soil moisture than the other treatments. Wheat yields after medic and sweetclover (25 bu/ac) were significantly higher than all other treatments. An herbicide screening tested a number of alfalfa herbicides on black medic. Poast, Fusilade, Treflan, and Kerb did not injure medic, while paraquat, Pursuit, and 2,4-DB ester caused minor injury. Solicam provided the best overall weed control with little injury to the medic.

6228. Siddoway, F.H. and H.C. McKay. 1962. Tillage of sweetclover under dryland conditions.. ID Agr. Ext. Service Bull. #388 Combined Series.
Sweetclover used in 2 systems: spring grain - fallow (limited growing season, precip>14"); winter grain - fallow (precip <14", growing season adequate); 3-8 lb/ac biennial Madrid sweetclover; less weed growth after sweetclover kill than on summerfallow after wheat; sweep tillage worked well in dry years; moldboard plow was the most consistent kill; sweep left about 35% of sweetclover residue on surface; higher soil nitrates after moldboard plow; no signficant effect on soil moisture; yield correlated to soil moisture; yields 16-18 bu/ac; no control plots. T: nitrogen, soil moisture, wheat yield.

8637. Goldstein, Walter. 1990. personal letter. MFAI, 3293, Main St., E. Troy, WI 53120.
Goldstein suggests that biennial black medic performs better in areas with milder winters (WA, KS, NE) than in North Dakota. The variety Virgo from Denmark seems more vigorous and competitive with weeds than the annual black medic from Montana. Instead of medic, some Midwest farmers are using biennial sweet clover aas a self-seeding legume green manure. They allow it to volunteer in winter wheat in March, grow it out the following year or fallow the clover ground, and then plant milo.

8763. Smith, Larry. n.d.. An evaluation of green manure plowdown systems in Nex Perce County, Idaho.. unpublished results from Cooperative Extension, 1239 Idaho St., Lewiston, ID 83501.
Three growers evaluated the nitrogen benefits and economics of their use of green manure legumes prior to winter wheat production. Two farmers used Austrain winter pea, and one used a sweetclover/red clover mix. Soil tests at various stages of production indicated an increase in available N (0-3') after green manure plowdown of 60-200 lb/ac. The cost of the green manure ranged from $15-27/ac. Clover appeared to produce the most N (191 lb/ac) while winter peas returned 62-116 lb/ac. Landlords did not charge rent for the green manure year, which helped the economic viability. Residual N values indicated that fertilizer N could have been greatly reduced or eliminated for the winter wheat after plowdown. Net returns for the two-year period ranged from $95-215/ac.

8897. Kroontje, W. and W.R. Kehr. 1956. Legume top and root yields in the year of seeding and subsequent barley yield.. Agronomy J. 48:127-131.
No significant difference in forage and root yields were measured among 6 alfalfa varieties and between hardy and non-hardy varieties. Forage production of Hubam and Madrid sweetclovers was equal. Barley yields following alfalfas and Hubam sweetclover were similar. Madrid depressed barley yields. Barley yield after vetches was superior to all other legumes. Contains good tables on root and top partitions under different cutting regimes.

9933. DeVault, G.. 1985. Sweet wheat.. The New Farm, May/June 1985, p.20-22..
In Gilford, Montana, where the average annual rainfall is 11.7", most farmers use summer fallow. But one farmer, Levi Hansen, does it in a non-traditional way. He seeds yellow sweetclover right along with the spring wheat. The wheat comes up before the clover. When the wheat is cut in the fall, the clover overwinters and comes on strong in spring. By May 15th, Hanson plows the clover in and cultivates during the summer as a normal fallow. He credits the sweetclover with helping keep yields up by increasing organic matter, tilth and water-holding capacity of his soil. He also estimates that the summer fallow produces an additional 60 lbs of nitrogen as crop residues break down.

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