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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, March 22, 2018


Browse on keywords: legume green manure ND

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Search results on 03/22/18

10307. Guldan, S.. 1991. Progress report, Substituting legumes for fallow in U.S. Great Plains wheat production.. Carrington Research Station, North Dakota State Univ., Carrington, ND.
Black medic could be most useful as a substitute for fallow in eastern and central North Dakota if increased winter-hardiness were introduced into the germplasm and if seed costs were reduced. It would work best when grown as a biennial. Hard seed is produced to provide self-seeding. Medic used less soil moisture below two feet depth than sweetclover and hairy vetch.

602. Badaruddin, M., and D.W. Meyer. 1989. Forage legume effects on soil nitrogen and grain yield, and nitrogen nutrition of wheat.. Agron. J. 81:419-424.
Five forage legumes (annual alfalfa, perennial alfalfa, sweetclover, red clover, and hariy vetch) were evaluated as possible replacements for summerfallow in the northern Great Plains. Hard red spring wheat was grown after all plowdowns, and after wheat, and a fallow check. Legume species were not significantly different in hay yields, and root and crown N content across environments, although alfalfa and sweetclover had 35-83% greater N contents than other species. Soil nitrate N in the spring following legumes was greater than following fertilized wheat, but less than following fallow across environments. Grain yield and N uptake of wheat following forage legumes generally were equal to those following fallow, but greater than those following wheat. These results suggest that including 1-yr forage legumes in crop sequence would be a better option than fallow in the higher moisture areas. T: N content of forage leguems; wheat yields as influenced by previous crop; N efficiency

4455. Meyer, D.W.. 1987. Influence of green-manured, hayed or grain legumes on grain yield and quality of the following barley crop in the Northern Great Plains. p. 94-95.. IN: J.F. Power (ed.). The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems..
Evaluates legume effects on spring barley in North Dakota. Legumes were either green manured, hayed, or harvested for the pulse crop in the seeding year. Green manure treatments produced unfertilized barley grain yields generally equivalent to yields following fallow, but significantly higher than yields following wheat. Yields following hairy vetch were the highest. Fertilized barley yields tended to be 12-15% higher following legumes than following wheat. Including legumes in the crop rotation increased the yield and protein concentration of the subsequent barley crop with reduced N fertilizer inputs. Green manured treatments were generally equal to fallow in grain yield.

7524. White, J.G.H.. undated. Grain legumes in sustainable cropping systems; a review.. unpublished manuscript, Plant Science Dept..
This paper briefly reviews the role that grain legumes can play in sustaining cropping systems. It presents various estimates of N fixation of grain legumes, with lupin and fababean showing the highest rates, followed by peas and lentils, chickpeas, and soybeans. Phaseolus beans are generally poor N fixers. Fababeans are more tolerant of soil mineral N than other species and will still fix large quantities of N when mineral N is present. Under drought stressed conditions, peas and lentils were more efficient in N fixation than fababeans. Only in lupins and fababeans was N fixation normally greater than the N removed in the seed. The roots and nodules of grain legumes are likely to be the greatest source of N for following crops. This N is often quickly mineralized within several weeks after harvest, and strategies are needed to prevent its loss. Grain legumes are also beneficial break crops, particularly for soil-borne diseases, and can help to control certain grassy weeds. Preceding grain legumes with a brassica crop has reduced the incidence of Aphanomyces root rot in peas, due to sulfur containing compounds. Most grain legumes suffer reduced yields if soils are compacted and poorly aerated. The paper contains numerous references and tables on nitrogen relations.

9933. DeVault, G.. 1985. Sweet wheat.. The New Farm, May/June 1985, p.20-22..
In Gilford, Montana, where the average annual rainfall is 11.7", most farmers use summer fallow. But one farmer, Levi Hansen, does it in a non-traditional way. He seeds yellow sweetclover right along with the spring wheat. The wheat comes up before the clover. When the wheat is cut in the fall, the clover overwinters and comes on strong in spring. By May 15th, Hanson plows the clover in and cultivates during the summer as a normal fallow. He credits the sweetclover with helping keep yields up by increasing organic matter, tilth and water-holding capacity of his soil. He also estimates that the summer fallow produces an additional 60 lbs of nitrogen as crop residues break down.

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