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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, March 22, 2018


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Search results on 03/22/18

555. Auld, D.L., G.A. Murray, and R.V. Withers. 1983. Austrian winter peas: a green manure crop for Idaho.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #652.
Good % of pea N is from soil; best to plow under right after flowering; Melrose contributed 278 lb/ac of vine N; winter peas produced slightly more biomass than spring peas, but fall peas can be plowed 2 weeks earlier; spring peas accumulated 70 lb N/ac more than winter peas; variable cost of WW-SB-SF = $63/ac, uses 120 lb N/ac; for WW-SB-pea GM = $59/ac, with only 40 lb N/ac; must consider intangible benifits; recommended green manure crop every 3-5 years. T: organic matter yield, nitrogen content, costs.

1540. Davis, J.B.. 1988. Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) with differential levels of glucosinolates evaluated to suppress Aphanomyces root rot.. M.S. Thesis.
Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) with differential levels of glucosinolates were evaluated as a green manure crop to suppress Aphanomyces root rot of peas.

3955. Mahler, R.L. and D.L. Auld. 1989. Evaluation of the green manure potential of Austrian winter peas in northern Idaho.. Agron. J. 81:258-264.
Austrian winter peas were evaluated as a green manure (GM) or seed pea (SP) crop, along with soil N levels, and subsequent yields of winter wheat (WW) and spring barley (SB). Four rotations were tested: GM-WW-SB; SP-WW-SB; SB-WW-SP; SF-WW-SB. Average N fertilizer equivalent values of 94, 75, and 68 kg/ha were provided by GM, SP, and SF (fallow) respectively, to the following wheat crop. Yield differences due to crop rotation or N fertilization rate were not observed in the third year of the cropping sequence. Austrian winter peas used as either a GM or SP provided more inorganic N than SF or SB. Although cereal crop yields were comparable, the SP-WW-SB was more profitable than GM-WW-SB or SF-WW-SB, due to the extra harvested crop.

4022. Mahler, R.L.. 1990. Nitrogen database project - final report.. unpublished report for Dryland Cereal/Legume LISA project.
This project had two components: 1) development of a comprehensive database on winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilizer rates; 2) evaluation of the potential of peas, alfalfa, and wheat straw as nitrogen sources for a following wheat crop in rotation. The database study examined winter wheat yield response to 41 nitrogen rates. When soil test N + mineralizable N + fertilizer N ranged from 101 to 175 kg/ha, a requirement of 2.75 lb N per bushel of wheat was calculated. This agrees with the figure calculated by Leggett in the 1950's, indicating that modern varieties have not changed in their basic nitrogen requirement, when nitrogen fertilizer efficiency is assumed to be 50%. At total available N rates greater than 175 kg/ha, the N requirement per bushel of wheat increased dramatically. Low rates did not show a large increase in efficiency on a per bushel basis. At Moscow, N fertilizer application rates less than 95 kg/ha resulted in greater than 50% N use efficiency. Efficiency declined rapidly at rates above this. The green manure study compared alfalfa, pea, and green wheat straw residues applied at 1, 2, and 3 mt/ha. In general, higher rates of pea and alfalfa resulted in higher wheat yields. The highest yields were with the high rate of pea residue. It was more effective than alfalfa residue, probably due to faster decomposition. Alfalfa provided more N per ton of residue (31 kg/mt) than the peas (29 kg/mt), while straw added 19 kg/mt.

8763. Smith, Larry. n.d.. An evaluation of green manure plowdown systems in Nex Perce County, Idaho.. unpublished results from Cooperative Extension, 1239 Idaho St., Lewiston, ID 83501.
Three growers evaluated the nitrogen benefits and economics of their use of green manure legumes prior to winter wheat production. Two farmers used Austrain winter pea, and one used a sweetclover/red clover mix. Soil tests at various stages of production indicated an increase in available N (0-3') after green manure plowdown of 60-200 lb/ac. The cost of the green manure ranged from $15-27/ac. Clover appeared to produce the most N (191 lb/ac) while winter peas returned 62-116 lb/ac. Landlords did not charge rent for the green manure year, which helped the economic viability. Residual N values indicated that fertilizer N could have been greatly reduced or eliminated for the winter wheat after plowdown. Net returns for the two-year period ranged from $95-215/ac.

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