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Monday, December 10, 2018

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Search results on 12/10/18

2015. Foulds, W.. 1978. Response to soil moisture supply in three leguminous species. I. Growth, reproduction and mortality.. New Phytol. 80:535-545..
The study compared white clover, birdsfoot trefoil, and black medic under conditions of high and low soil moisture. Black medic exhibited the most plasticity to moisture condition. On moist soils, it formed substantial vegetative growth and high numbers of seed. In drought conditions, it was the most tolerant at all growth stages, forming many seeds even when vegetative growth was low. Seeds per plant at high and low moisture were 80,000 and 3000 respectively. Competition by perennials during black medic seedling growth seriously inhibits the colonization of this species. Both the immature and adult stages of black medic show an effective avoidance of desiccation.

2221. Goldstein, Walter A.. 1986. Alternative crops, rotations, and management systems for dryland farming.. Ph.D. dissertation, Agronomy and Soils, WSU.
This work covers a number of research areas, including the use of edible white lupine as an alternative crop, the use of black medic in rotation with spring peas and winter wheat (the PALS concept), performance of winter wheat as influenced by rotations, fertilization, and fumigation; rotational effects of medics; wheat interference with weeds; costs and returns of alternative systems; comparison of agronomic effects of conventional, organic, and biodynamic management. The PALS (perpetuating alternative legume system) concept was field-tested using a pea + medic - medic GM - winter wheat rotation with limited inputs of agrichemicals and tillage. This system was more economic using market prices of commodities at both a low and high yield level. With government support prices, the PALS system was competitive in the low yield situation, but not the high. Rotational effects appeared to suppress weeds in wheat with the medic compared to a continuous cereal system.

2673. Holter, V.. 1978. Nitrogen fixation of four legumes in relation to above-ground biomass, root biomass, nodule number, and water content of the soil.. Oikos 31:230-235.
The study attempted to determine which plant characteristic was best correlated to acetylene reduction, and at what drought point it would stop. Four legumes were compared: vetch, red clover, -- clover, and black medic. All showed a drop in acetylene reduction around 8% water content on a clay soil. The correlation of various plant parameters with acetylene reduction was poor.

4921. Oien, David. no date. Black medic information packet.. Timeless Seeds, RR 3 Box 461, Conrad, MT 59425.
This packet is sent to growers who purchase seed. The seeding rate is recommended at 8-10 lb/ac, planted 1/2" deep into a firm seedbed. Field trials have indicated successful medic establishment with barley, oats, spring wheat, and flax as nurse crops, but a second year of medic growth is then necessary for adequate seed production. On-going experiments in Montana (Jim Sims, MSU) are examining several rotations: medic-cereal, sweetclover-cereal, fallow-ceral, and continuous cereal, with different nitrogen rates. Results indicate that the green manures used 1-3" more soil moisture than the other treatments. Wheat yields after medic and sweetclover (25 bu/ac) were significantly higher than all other treatments. An herbicide screening tested a number of alfalfa herbicides on black medic. Poast, Fusilade, Treflan, and Kerb did not injure medic, while paraquat, Pursuit, and 2,4-DB ester caused minor injury. Solicam provided the best overall weed control with little injury to the medic.

6285. Sims, J., S. Koala, R.L. Ditterline, and L.E. Weisner. 1985. Registration of 'George' black medic.. Crop Science 25:709-710..
'George' black medic (Medicago lupulina) was developed at Montana State University. It was selected as the progeny of a composite of seed collected from adapted ecotypes in several Montana counties. It produces 65-70% hard seed under MT conditions. This cultivar is recommended for use as a green manure crop on dryland with >40 cm (16") annual precipitation in the intermountain regions of Montana. It performed better than several Australian varieties in field tests. MSU will maintain breeder seed.

6892. Turkington, R.A. and P.B. Cavers. 1978. Reproductive strategies and growth patterns in four legumes.. Can. J. Botany 56:413-416.
Four legumes (alfalfa, black medic, red clover, white clover) were studied for their comparative reproductive strategies. Black medic was the first to flower and had produced seeds after only 9 weeks. Medic allocated 30% of its biomass to seed production. Alfalfa allocated about 65% of its total biomass dry weight to root production. These were the two extremes, with the clovers falling in between.

7850. Koala, S.. 1982. Adaptation of Australian ley farming to Montana dryland cereal production.. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Plant and Soil Sci., Montana St. Univ., Bozeman, MT 59717.
This study examined the potential to adapt the ley farming system used in Australia to dryland cereal production in Montana. The ley system alternates a grain crop with a self-seeding forage legume. The legumes tested in this study included 5 Australian medics, 7 subclovers, 2 lupins, fababean, and a native Montana black medic. One full cycle of the system was completed. All grain yields (spring wheat) were higher after the legumes than after fallow. Soil water to 120 cm was similar in all plots at wheat planting. The black medic treatment had the highest water use efficiency (100 kg grain/cm) and fallow the lowest (55 kg grain/cm). There were higher levels of soil nitrate after the legumes than after fallow. Re-establishment of the legumes after wheat ranged from 3 to 93% ground cover, with black medic being the highest. Overall, black medic from Montana performed best in this study.

8637. Goldstein, Walter. 1990. personal letter. MFAI, 3293, Main St., E. Troy, WI 53120.
Goldstein suggests that biennial black medic performs better in areas with milder winters (WA, KS, NE) than in North Dakota. The variety Virgo from Denmark seems more vigorous and competitive with weeds than the annual black medic from Montana. Instead of medic, some Midwest farmers are using biennial sweet clover aas a self-seeding legume green manure. They allow it to volunteer in winter wheat in March, grow it out the following year or fallow the clover ground, and then plant milo.

9894. Cramer, C.. 1987. Water saving 'weed' replaces chem-fallow.. The New Farm, Sept/Oct 1987, p. 28-29..
Black medic is successfully being used in Montana as a reseeding annual legume in dryland rotations. The medic is protecting the soil from erosion, improving soil structure and water-holding capacity, disrupting weed and disease cycles, and reducing saline seep. Becauce medic is a shallow-rooted legume, it is supplying the soil with added nitrogen but only drawing water from the top 2 feet of the soil profile. This moisture is replaced by snow melt. The medic can also be a profitable hay crop.

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