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Saturday, September 22, 2018

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1248. Center for Alternative Crops and Products.. 1987. Grain legumes as alternate crops.. Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.
See especially section on lupines: world trade, cultural practices.

2221. Goldstein, Walter A.. 1986. Alternative crops, rotations, and management systems for dryland farming.. Ph.D. dissertation, Agronomy and Soils, WSU.
This work covers a number of research areas, including the use of edible white lupine as an alternative crop, the use of black medic in rotation with spring peas and winter wheat (the PALS concept), performance of winter wheat as influenced by rotations, fertilization, and fumigation; rotational effects of medics; wheat interference with weeds; costs and returns of alternative systems; comparison of agronomic effects of conventional, organic, and biodynamic management. The PALS (perpetuating alternative legume system) concept was field-tested using a pea + medic - medic GM - winter wheat rotation with limited inputs of agrichemicals and tillage. This system was more economic using market prices of commodities at both a low and high yield level. With government support prices, the PALS system was competitive in the low yield situation, but not the high. Rotational effects appeared to suppress weeds in wheat with the medic compared to a continuous cereal system.

4201. McCalla, T.M. and J.C. Russel. 1948. Nitrate production as affected by sweetclover residues left on the soil surface.. J. Am. Soc. Agron., 40(5):411-421.

7434. Walter, D.T.. 1987. Early studies on the use of legumes for conservation tillage in Nebraska.. IN: J.F. Power (ed.). The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems. p. 9-10.
Describes early research beginning in the 1930s. Surface residues, especially alfalfa, improved soil structure and infiltration. Erosion and runoff from dense, subtilled legume plots was minimal compared to oat or wheat stubble. Sweetclover and alfalfa were the principal legumes. Erosion and excess N mineralization were problems with sweetclover. Subtilling legume residues retarded decomposition and nitrification, increased earthworm casts, and enhanced aggregate stability. When sweetclover decomposed on the surface, 5-10 lb N/ac were lost as NH3, with only a trace lost when residue was plowed under.

7524. White, J.G.H.. undated. Grain legumes in sustainable cropping systems; a review.. unpublished manuscript, Plant Science Dept..
This paper briefly reviews the role that grain legumes can play in sustaining cropping systems. It presents various estimates of N fixation of grain legumes, with lupin and fababean showing the highest rates, followed by peas and lentils, chickpeas, and soybeans. Phaseolus beans are generally poor N fixers. Fababeans are more tolerant of soil mineral N than other species and will still fix large quantities of N when mineral N is present. Under drought stressed conditions, peas and lentils were more efficient in N fixation than fababeans. Only in lupins and fababeans was N fixation normally greater than the N removed in the seed. The roots and nodules of grain legumes are likely to be the greatest source of N for following crops. This N is often quickly mineralized within several weeks after harvest, and strategies are needed to prevent its loss. Grain legumes are also beneficial break crops, particularly for soil-borne diseases, and can help to control certain grassy weeds. Preceding grain legumes with a brassica crop has reduced the incidence of Aphanomyces root rot in peas, due to sulfur containing compounds. Most grain legumes suffer reduced yields if soils are compacted and poorly aerated. The paper contains numerous references and tables on nitrogen relations.

7662. Wright, A.T. and E. Coxworth. 1987. Benefits from pulses in the cropping systems of northern Canada. p. 108. IN: J.F. Power (ed.). The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems..
Investigated yield and N response in barley and wheat, 1 and 2 years after pulse crops of fababean, pea, and lentil. Overall yields were higher on fababean and field pea residues than lentils. Soil tests could not attribute yield differences among crop residues to differences in soil N levels at time of seeding. Nitrogen fertilizer equivalents for barley were 105, 85, and 50 lb N/ac for fababean, peas, and lentils. Legume residues influenced barley grain quality. In the second year following pulses, the dry matter yield, grain yield, and N uptake of wheat was 15% higher than in the continuous cereal sequence. Analysis of 3 completed rotation cycles showed that cropping sequences that included pulses were considerably more productive than the continuous cereal sequence in terms of net energy production and economic gross margin to cash costs. Field peas were the most effective first-year crop in terms of net energy production.

8897. Kroontje, W. and W.R. Kehr. 1956. Legume top and root yields in the year of seeding and subsequent barley yield.. Agronomy J. 48:127-131.
No significant difference in forage and root yields were measured among 6 alfalfa varieties and between hardy and non-hardy varieties. Forage production of Hubam and Madrid sweetclovers was equal. Barley yields following alfalfas and Hubam sweetclover were similar. Madrid depressed barley yields. Barley yield after vetches was superior to all other legumes. Contains good tables on root and top partitions under different cutting regimes.

9894. Cramer, C.. 1987. Water saving 'weed' replaces chem-fallow.. The New Farm, Sept/Oct 1987, p. 28-29..
Black medic is successfully being used in Montana as a reseeding annual legume in dryland rotations. The medic is protecting the soil from erosion, improving soil structure and water-holding capacity, disrupting weed and disease cycles, and reducing saline seep. Becauce medic is a shallow-rooted legume, it is supplying the soil with added nitrogen but only drawing water from the top 2 feet of the soil profile. This moisture is replaced by snow melt. The medic can also be a profitable hay crop.

10079. Cowie, A.L., R.S. Jessop, D.A. MacLeod and G.J. Davis. 1990. Effect of soil nitrate on the growth and nodulation of lupins (Lupinus angustifolius and L. albus).. Austral. J. Expt. Agric. 30:655-659..
The effect of increasing external nitrate concentration on the nodulation of Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius lines was examined in two sand culture experiments. In the first experiment four lines, three L. albus and one L. angustifolius, were grown at nitrate concentrations of 0, 2, 8, 16, and 30 mmol/L for 49 days. Increasing the nitrate concentration reduced nodule weight in all varieties to a similar extent. In a second experiment, 18 L. angustifolius lines were grown at nitrate concentrations of 2 and 8 mmol/L for 49 days. The ratio of nodule weights at the 8 and 2 mmol/L nitrate treatments varied widely, from 23 to 71%, between the lines. There appears to be potential for selection of L. angustifolius varieties able to maintain nitrogen fixation at increased levels of soil N.

10088. Cowie, A.L., R.S. Jessop and D.A. MacLeod. 1990. Effect of soil nitrate on the growth and nodulation of winter crop legumes.. Austral. J. Expt. Agric. 30:651-654..
The relative effect of increasing external nitrate supply on the nodulation of three winter crop legumes was examined in a controlled environment experiment. Lupin, chickpea and field pea were grown at two nitrate concentrations of 2 and 8 mmol/L for 40 days. Shoot and root growth were not affected by nitrate contrations. Increased nitrate concentrations significantly reduced nodule number and nodule weight in all species. The inhibition of nodulation by increased nitrate concentrations was greatest in peas, followed by chickpeas, and least in lupins.

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