WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Sunday, July 22, 2018

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2862. Hurd-Karrer, A.M.. 1946. Relation of soil reaction to toxicity and persistence of some herbicides in greenhouse plots. USDA Technical Bulletin 911.
Deals with herbicides used prior to 2,4-D, such as sodium chlorate, sodium thiocyanate, ammonium sulfamate, borax. Initially, all herbicides were most toxic in acid soils, and least toxic in alkaline soils, and persisitence was similar. Borax was the most persistent. Nitrogen fertilizer did not reduce chlorate toxicity in a practical manner.

3945. Mahler, R.L.. 1981. Implications of acidification of farmland in northern Idaho.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #629.
Loss of Ca and Mg is primarily by crop removal in northern Idaho; wheat crop removes 20-50 lb/ac/yr of each cation; ammonium-based fertilizers have been main acidifying factor; had been a big change in past 25 yrs; large % of soils now below pH 6.0; current wheat varieties in Idaho acid intolerant; soil acidity may favor certain weeds and diseases.

8448. Willis, H.. 1990. Wheat - the staff of life.. Acres USA, May 1990, p. 11-14.
The best long-term way to control weeds is to get soil nutrients into balance, with relatively high calcium and phosphorus, and low potassium levels. Soaking seeds in hydrogen peroxide solution for 8 hours should increase germination rate. A general foliar feed recipe is given consisting of 1 qt. liquid phosphoric acid, 1 gallon household ammonia, and 2 gallons liquid fish emulsion. A refractometer can be used to monitor crop health. For growing wheat, use sap from the second and third newest leaves. Later, use the flag leaf. A sugar reading of about 18% or above is good. Readings over 25% are excellent and below 8% poor.

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