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Saturday, September 22, 2018

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Search results on 09/22/18

2033. Fowler, D.B. and J. Brydon. 1989. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian Prairies: timing of nitrogen fertilization.. Agron. J. 81:817-825.
Tested the effect of timing of a broadcast application of ammonium sulfate on grain and protein yield and protein concentration. Lower grain yield, grain protein yield and grain protein concentration were attributed to loss of fall applied N in four trials. Increased grain protein concentration was often associated with delayed N availability. Reduced grain and grain protein yield, and increased grain protein concentration were observed for fall and early spring N applications in trials that experienced favorable spring weather followed by a prolonged drought.

2043. Fowler, D.B. and J. Brydon. 1989. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian prairies: placement of urea and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.. Agron. J. 81:518-524.
A practical snow management system, which utilizes no-till seeding into standing stubble immediately after harvest, has permitted expansion of winter wheat production in western Canada. This study examined grain responses to urea and ammonium nitrate fertilizer banded and broadcast at seeding, or broadcast in the late fall or early spring. A moisture shortage biased the results. Fall banding prior to seeding helped reduce volatilization losses of urea (which were as much as 50%), but presented other problems and did not outperform broadcast ammonium nitrate.

2756. Huggins, D.R., W.L. Pan, and J.L. Smith. 1989. Improving yield, percent protein, and N use efficiency of no-till hard red spring wheat through crop rotation and fall N fertilization.. Proceedings, 40th Far West Fertilizer Conference,.
In a field experiment near Pullman, WA, all fall and split fall-spring N applications significantly increased percent protein and N uptake efficiency as compared to all spring applications, while yields were unaffected. Protein increase was attributed to enhanced late season uptake, due to better positional availability of deep soil N. In another experiment, yield of hard red spring wheat was 10% greater when no-tilled into Austrian winter pea stubble (for seed) as compared to winter wheat stubble, while grain N and percent protein were not affected. The difference in yield was not eliminated by optimized N rates, indicating other rotation effects.

9444. Kitchen, N.R., D.G. Westfall and G.A. Peterson. 1989. Potential N and C mineralization in dryland no-till cropping soils as influenced by N fertilization management.. Agronomy Abstracts, Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI. p. 244..
A study was conducted to determine the effects of N fertilization on potential mineralization of N and C in no-till cropped soils. A 30 day incubation was performed on soils from Sterling and Stratton, Colorado, sampled at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths over and between crop rows. Nitrogen fertilization treatments were banded and broadcast UAN at 0, 34, and 90 kg N/ha. Net N mineralization rate was approximately 0.5 mg N/kg /soil-day greater in the Stratton 0-5 cm soil over the row than between the row. The same trend was found with C mineralization rates. Sterling soil from the 5-15 cm depth decreased in the ratio of C/N mineralized with increasing rate of N fertilization, but was not different as a result of fertilization placement. The results of this study illustrate the interaction of N and C turnover in soils.

9601. Fredrickson, J.K., F.E. Koehler and H.H. Cheng. 1982. Availablility of N-labeled nitrogen in fertilizer and in wheat straw to wheat in tilled and no-till soil.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46:1218-1222.
In a field study, wheat was grown in microplots under conventional tillage and no-till seedings to compare availability of fertilizer nitrogen for two consecutive crops. The N-labeled ammonium sulfate was surface-applied in May 1980 to a spring wheat crop which utilized 25 to 40% of the fertilizer N, with the highest uptake occurring on no-till. There was no difference in dry matter production between tillage methods. A winter wheat crop was then grown in the same microplots to assess the availability of the residual labeled fertilizer N, and in new microplots which were treated with the spring wheat straw containing 5.20 atom % N and 1.20% total N to assess the availability of straw N. Approximately 9% of the wheat straw N was taken up by the 1980 to 1981 winter wheat crop, while an average of 6% of the residual fertilizer N was utilized. Winter wheat dry matter production was highest on no-till receiving 168 kg N/ha, but no difference was found between the effects of tillage methods on the availability of straw N or on the uptake of residual fertilizer N. Therefore, decreased wheat production on no-till in the Pacific Northwest would not likely result from poorer crop utilization of fertilizer N under no-till than under convenional tillage. Overall low crop N-use efficiencies of the surface-applied fertilizer N were likey due to immobilization and denitrification.

9617. Grant, C.A., E.H. Stobbe and G.J. Racz. 1984. The effect of N and P fertilization on winter survival of winter wheat under zero-tilled and conventionally tilled management.. Can. J. Soil Science 64:293-296..
A preliminary field study was conducted to investigate the influence of fall applications of nitrogen and phosphorus on winter survival of winter wheat on zero-tilled and conventionally tilled land. Nitrogen fertilization tended to decrease winter survival while phosphorus fertilization tended to increase survival. A N-P interaction was observed, with the derease in survival in response to added N being more evident in the absense of applied P. Balanced N-P fertilization may therefore result in highest winter survival in both conventionally tilled and zero-tilled winter wheat.

9715. Parsons, B.C. and F.E. Koehler. 1983. Fertilizer use by spring wheat as affected by placement.. Proceedings 35th Annual Northwest Fertilizer Conference, Pasco, Washington, July 17-18. p. 101-106..
High rates of soil erosion are a problem in the steep, dryland wheat producing areas of eastern Washington. Reductions in soil productivity have been measured as the result of top soil loss. One possible reason for lower yields in no-till is the less efficient use of applied fertilizer-N. With residues concentrated on or near the surface in no-tilled soil, decomposition is slower than would be expected if the residue was incorporated.

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