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Tuesday, October 23, 2018

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1015. Bowren, K.E. (ed.).. 1986. Soil improvement with legumes.. Saskatchewan Agriculture, Soils and Crops Branch.
This excellent publication summarizes research over the past 40 years pertaining to the use of legumes for soil improvement in Saskatchewan. The role of legumes in maintaining soil nitrogen was crucial prior to available fertilizer. But their value extends beyond their nitrogen contribution to the improvement of soil physical properties. One study found the tillage draft requirement to be up to one-third lower where legumes had been a regular part of the rotation. The positive effects of alfalfa were measured for over ten years in a series of wheat crops compared to plots with no alfalfa. Over 17 years, the average grain yield from a wheat-wheat/clover-clover green manure rotation with no fertilizer were 30% higher that a wheat-wheat-fallow rotation with fertilizer. Moisture depletion by legumes is the biggest hurdle to their use in very dry areas. Adequate fertility for the legumes is necessary to maximize their benefit. Use of selected Rhizobium strains can improve nitrogen fixation, especially on acid soils. Several varieties of sweetclover are mentioned with adaptation to forage or green manure use. The booklet has numerous color photos and many data tables and figures.

2221. Goldstein, Walter A.. 1986. Alternative crops, rotations, and management systems for dryland farming.. Ph.D. dissertation, Agronomy and Soils, WSU.
This work covers a number of research areas, including the use of edible white lupine as an alternative crop, the use of black medic in rotation with spring peas and winter wheat (the PALS concept), performance of winter wheat as influenced by rotations, fertilization, and fumigation; rotational effects of medics; wheat interference with weeds; costs and returns of alternative systems; comparison of agronomic effects of conventional, organic, and biodynamic management. The PALS (perpetuating alternative legume system) concept was field-tested using a pea + medic - medic GM - winter wheat rotation with limited inputs of agrichemicals and tillage. This system was more economic using market prices of commodities at both a low and high yield level. With government support prices, the PALS system was competitive in the low yield situation, but not the high. Rotational effects appeared to suppress weeds in wheat with the medic compared to a continuous cereal system.

2340. Haddock, J.L., G.M. Horner and C.R. Freese. 1945. Report on the use of gypsum and sulfur for peas.. WA Agr. Expt Sta. Circ. #24.
The data show that soils of E. WA are not critically low in sulfur for peas, but in a favorable season the addition of sulfur can improve yields. Further research was planned. T: Effect of time of application of gypsum on pea yield in Whitman county. Effect of nitrogen and sulfur on pea yield. Effect of gypsum on pea yield.

4621. Muehlbauer, F.J. and R.F. Dudley. 1974. Seeding rate and P placement for Alaska peas in the Palouse.. WSU Coop. Ext. Bull. #794.
Studied seeding rate and placement; optimum seeding rate seemed to be 150 lb.ac; when soil P was higher than 4.8 ppm, no yield response; banded P was effective when soil test was low. T: seeding rate, P fertilization.

5065. Patten, A.G.. 1982. Comparison of nitrogen and phosphorous flows on an organic and conventional farm.. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Agronomy and Soils, WSU, Pullman, WA.
Two adjacent farms, one organically managed and the other conventionally managed, located in the Palouse region of eastern WA, were studied for 2 years. Soil organic matter, total N, extractable P, and extractable K tended to be higher in the top 30 cm of soil from the organic farm. Mineral nitrogen in the top 30 cm of soil from the conventional farm was higher than or equal to that of the organic farm. Average long-term changes calculated in soil N and P pools resulted in substantial deficits of 44 and 14 kg/ha/yr, respectively, for the organic farm and 23 and 5 kg/ha/yr for the conventional farm. However, nutrients deficits were not reflected in lower soil N and P levels in the plot area tested on the organic farm as compared to the plot area on the conventional farm.

5816. Reisenauer, H.M.. 1957. Molybdenum for legumes in eastern Washington.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. #307.
Molybdenum can increase legume yields. Rates of application were 0.4 lb/ac. T: The effect of molybdenum on peas. The effect of molybdenum on alfalfa. Molybdenum and pea and clover seedings.

5825. Reisenauer, H.M. and G.E. Leggett. 1957. Eastern Washington soils need sulfur.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. #317.
Low levels of S limit crop growth. S should be applied at 20 lb/yr to legumes. S can increase cereal yields. T: Composition of fertilizer materials. Effect of S on yield and N content of sweetclover. Effect of S at different rates of N on yield of spring wheat. S trials with wheat.

7161. Vandecaveye, S.C. and W.H. Fuller. 1941. Studies of different cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum and of gypsum and straw for seed pea production.. Iowa St. College Journal of Sci. 15(4):415-423.
Tested 7 cultures of Rhizobium for nodulation and yield of Alaska seed peas. Also did a pot study with wheat straw and gypsum amendments. The field soil had never had peas before, but contained sufficient Rhizobium to inoculate peas. Seed inoculation tended to increase yields, but no culture was a sufficiently good N fixer to insure vigorous growth on soils low in available N. Soil amendments did not affect nodulation or growth. Yield differences were primarily due to variation in soil productivity.

7850. Koala, S.. 1982. Adaptation of Australian ley farming to Montana dryland cereal production.. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Plant and Soil Sci., Montana St. Univ., Bozeman, MT 59717.
This study examined the potential to adapt the ley farming system used in Australia to dryland cereal production in Montana. The ley system alternates a grain crop with a self-seeding forage legume. The legumes tested in this study included 5 Australian medics, 7 subclovers, 2 lupins, fababean, and a native Montana black medic. One full cycle of the system was completed. All grain yields (spring wheat) were higher after the legumes than after fallow. Soil water to 120 cm was similar in all plots at wheat planting. The black medic treatment had the highest water use efficiency (100 kg grain/cm) and fallow the lowest (55 kg grain/cm). There were higher levels of soil nitrate after the legumes than after fallow. Re-establishment of the legumes after wheat ranged from 3 to 93% ground cover, with black medic being the highest. Overall, black medic from Montana performed best in this study.

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