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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

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Search results on 01/23/18

5694. Rasmussen, P.E., D.E. Wilkins and C.L. Douglas Jr.. 1985. Annual-crop spring barley response to nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 738, p. 33-34.
Annual cropping is often possible where annual precipitation exceeds 14 inches. It is recommended on soils less than 4 ft deep since the soil profile normally is filled by a single winter's rainfall. Rotation of winter wheat with a spring cereal is often preferred to continuous winter wheat because weed control is easier and stubble more manageable. Fertilizer needs increase sharply under annual cropping because nutrient buildup by fallowing is eliminated and competition for nutrients by residue-decomposing organisms is more intense. In this study, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur response by spring barley was determined for annual-crop conventional and minimum tillage.

26. Lerch, R.N., K.A. Barbarick, D.G. Westfall, R.H. Follett, T.M. McBride, and W.F. Owen. 1990. Sustainable rates of sewage sludge for dryland winter wheat production. 2. Production and income.. J. Production Agric. 3:66-71.
A sewage sludge application rate of 3 T/ac on hard red winter wheat increased gross income by an average of $45/ac/year compared to wheat grown with the typical 50-60 lb fertilizer N/ac. This was primarily due to premiums paid for higher grain protein. Grain levels of P an Zn were increased by sludge application, while levels of Cd, Ni, and Pb have remained low.

2033. Fowler, D.B. and J. Brydon. 1989. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian Prairies: timing of nitrogen fertilization.. Agron. J. 81:817-825.
Tested the effect of timing of a broadcast application of ammonium sulfate on grain and protein yield and protein concentration. Lower grain yield, grain protein yield and grain protein concentration were attributed to loss of fall applied N in four trials. Increased grain protein concentration was often associated with delayed N availability. Reduced grain and grain protein yield, and increased grain protein concentration were observed for fall and early spring N applications in trials that experienced favorable spring weather followed by a prolonged drought.

2322. Guettinger, D.L. and F.E. Koehler. 1963. Nitrogen relationships in wheat plants.. Agron. J., 55:409-410.
Tried a quick test of wheat plants in the spring to determine N sufficiency; good correlation between quick test values and total plant N (Kjeldahl).

2756. Huggins, D.R., W.L. Pan, and J.L. Smith. 1989. Improving yield, percent protein, and N use efficiency of no-till hard red spring wheat through crop rotation and fall N fertilization.. Proceedings, 40th Far West Fertilizer Conference,.
In a field experiment near Pullman, WA, all fall and split fall-spring N applications significantly increased percent protein and N uptake efficiency as compared to all spring applications, while yields were unaffected. Protein increase was attributed to enhanced late season uptake, due to better positional availability of deep soil N. In another experiment, yield of hard red spring wheat was 10% greater when no-tilled into Austrian winter pea stubble (for seed) as compared to winter wheat stubble, while grain N and percent protein were not affected. The difference in yield was not eliminated by optimized N rates, indicating other rotation effects.

3875. Leggett, G.E. and W.L. Nelson. 1960. Wheat production as influenced by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #608.
The average wheat yields resulting from annual cropping with optimum nitrogen fertilization were 13 bu/ac at Ritzville, 23 and Harrington and 29 at Dusty. The yields at Ritzville were too low for this practice to compete economically with the summer-fallow system. The average yields were high enough at Harrington and Dusty for this cropping system to be seriously considered. At Dusty annual cropping resulted in a yearly average yield of 6 bu/ac more than was obtained on fallowed ground. The yield of wheat following Austrian winter peas as a green manure crop at Dusty was greater than that obtained after alfalfa or sweetclover. Soil analysis revealed that nitrogen fertilization resulted in a carryover of nitrate-nitrogen for subsequent crops. This was especially notable under annual cropping and with high rates of application on summer-fallow. The protein content of the wheat was increased markedly by nitrogen fertilization. T: Nitrate-nitrogen in the soil before fertilization and the available soil moisture used by wheat as influenced by nitrogen fertilization cropping practice, Dusty. Yields of barley and wheat as influenced by alfalfa, sweetclover, and Austrian winter peas as green manure crops.

5463. Pumphrey, F.V. and P.E. Rasmussen. 1982. Winter wheat fertilization in the Northwest intermountain region.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta., Circular #691. OSU, Corvallis, OR..
Most dryland wheat needs 40-100 lb/ac N. Early spring applications of N are 50% more efficient. Most wheat fields also need S. Most soils do not need P, but if needed half as much P needs to be applied if drilled with seed versus seperate application. T: N fertilizer effect on yield. N and S in grain and straw of a 50 and 125 bushel crop. Yields of wheat fertilized with different sources and forms of N. Soil N in non-fertilized soil as influenced by soil depth and sampling from planting to harvest. Soil N as influenced by soil depth, time of sampling, and fertilizer applications.

5735. Rasmussen, P.E. and C.R. Rohde. 1988. Stubble burning effects on winter wheat yield and N utilization under semiarid conditions.. Agronomy J. 80:940-942.
Burning vs. not burning was examined at 3 nitrogen levels over 6 years (3 crops). Burning had no effect on grain yield or grain N uptake. Burning increased straw yield when wheat was fertilized by N, but had no effect on straw N uptake. Burning did not decrease foot rot incidence or severity, but did reduce downy brome density. T: Effects of stubble burning and N fertilization on grain and straw of winter wheat 1980-85. Effect of stubble burning on foot rot infection. Effect of stubble burning on downybrome infestation.

7885. McGuire, C., R. Lockerman, R. Speilman, L. Welty, L. Prestbye, R. Engel, J. Sims, and J. Bunker. 1989. Nitrogen contribution of annual legumes to the grain protein content of Clark barley production.. Applied Agric. Res. 4:118-121.

8598. Vaughan, B., D.G. Westfall, and K.A. Barbarick. 1990. Nitrogen rate and timing effects on winter wheat grain yield, grain protein, and economics.. J. Production Agric. 3:324-328.
The study compared winter wheat grain yields, protein, and economic returns associated with fall, spring, and split applications of N fertilizer at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 lb N/ac at 19 sites over 3 yr in eastern Colorado. Spring-applied N increased grain yields and protein more than fall- and split-applied N. About 1.2 lb N/ac fall applied were equal to 1 lb N/ac spring applied to achieve similar production. Spring-applied N was the most profitable choice.

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