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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Monday, October 15, 2018

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Search results on 10/15/18

5694. Rasmussen, P.E., D.E. Wilkins and C.L. Douglas Jr.. 1985. Annual-crop spring barley response to nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 738, p. 33-34.
Annual cropping is often possible where annual precipitation exceeds 14 inches. It is recommended on soils less than 4 ft deep since the soil profile normally is filled by a single winter's rainfall. Rotation of winter wheat with a spring cereal is often preferred to continuous winter wheat because weed control is easier and stubble more manageable. Fertilizer needs increase sharply under annual cropping because nutrient buildup by fallowing is eliminated and competition for nutrients by residue-decomposing organisms is more intense. In this study, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur response by spring barley was determined for annual-crop conventional and minimum tillage.

953. Bolton, F.E.. 1984. Sulfur response trial - 1983. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report #713, p.26-27.
A trial was established on the Moro Station in the fall of 1982 with four levels of sulfur and two levels of nitrogen. Sulfur increased grain yield when no N was applied. There was no additional yield increase above 9 lb S/ac. Positive response to sulfur at low nitrogen levels was an indication that sulfur is near the critical level. The addition of small amounts of sulfur (10-15 lb/ac) may be good insurance for sustaining high yield levels.

1292. Chaudhary, T.H.. 1976. The effect of nitrogen source and 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine (N-Serve) on the nitrogen and sulfur nutrition of wheat.. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Agronomy and Soils, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA.
The effects of urea applications with and without the product N-serve were examined. N-serve considerably reduced the loss of NH4+-N to organic transformations, and resulted in much higher amounts that were available to plants. Some problem of N toxicity resulted, but this was presumed to also be related to a lack of sulfur. T: Many. e.g.:Changes in the organic N content of the soil and N uptake by plants. Amounts of NH4+-N and NO3--N in the soil in April and August. Dry-matter yields and percentage uptake of N and S.

2829. Hunter, A.S., L.A. Alban, C.J. Gerard, W.E. Hall, H.E. Cushman, and R.G. Peterson. 1961. Fertilizer needs of wheat in the Columbia Basin dryland wheat area of Oregon.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. #57.
3-4 1b N needed per bushel of wheat. T: nitrogen rate by variety, soil type

3735. Koehler, F.E.. 1961. Fertilizers and wheat quality.. Proceedings, 12th ann. Fert. Conf. Pacific NW, Salem, OR, p.73-78.
An overview of wheat protein, and relationships to N fertilizers. For soft white pastry type wheat grown in the Columbia Basin region of Oregon there was little increase in protein concentration until sufficient nitrogen had been added to give maximum yields. After this, further increases in nitrogen fertilizer rates caused rather marked increases in protein concentration. If high quality pastry wheat is to be produced, care must be taken not to use excessive amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Yet, for maximum efficiency of production adequate nitrogen must be applied to obtain maximum yields. This means that the nitrogen supply must be rather carefully controlled for pastry wheat production. T: Average protein content of wheat as affected by nitrogen fertilizer.

3885. Leggett, G.E., H.M. Reisenauer and W.L. Nelson. 1959. Fertilization of dryland wheat in eastern Washington.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #602.
This bulletin presents the results of 5 yrs of experimenting with the fertilization of wheat. During 1953-1957, 112 fertility experiments were conducted on dry land wheat throughout eastern Washington. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased yields in 92 of the 112 experiments conducted. Whether nitrogen fertilization increased wheat yields depended largely on the amount of moisture available to the crop. Because of the decline in soil organic matter through years of cropping, the amount of available N released by soils is no longer adequate to support high wheat yields. The introduction of high yield varieties and improved tillage has increased yield potential, and this has increased the demand for N. Application rates (lb N/ac): <10" rainfall - 20-40; 10-15" - 20-60; >15" - 30-80. Different types of N fertilizer did not change yields. T: Summary of the effects of N on wheat yields, 1953-57; effect of N on yield from fallow ground.

5463. Pumphrey, F.V. and P.E. Rasmussen. 1982. Winter wheat fertilization in the Northwest intermountain region.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta., Circular #691. OSU, Corvallis, OR..
Most dryland wheat needs 40-100 lb/ac N. Early spring applications of N are 50% more efficient. Most wheat fields also need S. Most soils do not need P, but if needed half as much P needs to be applied if drilled with seed versus seperate application. T: N fertilizer effect on yield. N and S in grain and straw of a 50 and 125 bushel crop. Yields of wheat fertilized with different sources and forms of N. Soil N in non-fertilized soil as influenced by soil depth and sampling from planting to harvest. Soil N as influenced by soil depth, time of sampling, and fertilizer applications.

5577. Ramig, R.E. and L.G. Ekin. 1985. Fertilizer response in 1984: No-till annual cropping of small grains.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 738, p.27-32.
Fertilizer experiments with no-till annual cropped small grains were conducted in 1983-84 near Pilot Rock and Kent, Oregon. Summary and recommendations: 1) No-till annual cropping is feasible on shallow (<36 in deep) soils that usually fill with water the first winter after grain harvest.; 2) Uniform distribution of chaff and straw when harvesting is important; 3) Proper herbicides are needed; 4) Use a drill capable of seeding through standing crop residue, banding fertilizer 2-3 inches below the seed; 5) The optimum fertilizer rate is usually 150% of the optimum rate for grain after fallow; 6) Banding fertilizer 2 or 3 inches below the seed is best. T: many, e.g. Variety responses to N, P, K, and S.

5735. Rasmussen, P.E. and C.R. Rohde. 1988. Stubble burning effects on winter wheat yield and N utilization under semiarid conditions.. Agronomy J. 80:940-942.
Burning vs. not burning was examined at 3 nitrogen levels over 6 years (3 crops). Burning had no effect on grain yield or grain N uptake. Burning increased straw yield when wheat was fertilized by N, but had no effect on straw N uptake. Burning did not decrease foot rot incidence or severity, but did reduce downy brome density. T: Effects of stubble burning and N fertilization on grain and straw of winter wheat 1980-85. Effect of stubble burning on foot rot infection. Effect of stubble burning on downybrome infestation.

6555. Smith, V.T.. 1941. The effect of organic residues and fertilizers on the yield and quality of wheat and on the organic matter status of a semi-arid soil.. MS Thesis, Washington State College, Pullman, WA.
OM was increased most by addition of manure and least by 40 lb/ac application of straw. Suggestions for OM maintenance are: a) addition of straw and manure increases C-N of soil without depressing yield; b) addition of ammonium sulfate both with and without straw increases C, N in the spring, N in grain and straw, and yield of straw, without depressing yield; c) addition of either straw and manure or straw and N are equally efficient in increasing C and N in soil. T: many. eg.: grain yields from the Organic Matter Maintenance Series of plots, 1923-1940. Acre inches of available moisture in the soil at the Organic Matter Maintenance Series. Pounds of nitrates per acre at the Organic Matter Maint. Series plots.

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