WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Tuesday, December 11, 2018

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2033. Fowler, D.B. and J. Brydon. 1989. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian Prairies: timing of nitrogen fertilization.. Agron. J. 81:817-825.
Tested the effect of timing of a broadcast application of ammonium sulfate on grain and protein yield and protein concentration. Lower grain yield, grain protein yield and grain protein concentration were attributed to loss of fall applied N in four trials. Increased grain protein concentration was often associated with delayed N availability. Reduced grain and grain protein yield, and increased grain protein concentration were observed for fall and early spring N applications in trials that experienced favorable spring weather followed by a prolonged drought.

2322. Guettinger, D.L. and F.E. Koehler. 1963. Nitrogen relationships in wheat plants.. Agron. J., 55:409-410.
Tried a quick test of wheat plants in the spring to determine N sufficiency; good correlation between quick test values and total plant N (Kjeldahl).

2756. Huggins, D.R., W.L. Pan, and J.L. Smith. 1989. Improving yield, percent protein, and N use efficiency of no-till hard red spring wheat through crop rotation and fall N fertilization.. Proceedings, 40th Far West Fertilizer Conference,.
In a field experiment near Pullman, WA, all fall and split fall-spring N applications significantly increased percent protein and N uptake efficiency as compared to all spring applications, while yields were unaffected. Protein increase was attributed to enhanced late season uptake, due to better positional availability of deep soil N. In another experiment, yield of hard red spring wheat was 10% greater when no-tilled into Austrian winter pea stubble (for seed) as compared to winter wheat stubble, while grain N and percent protein were not affected. The difference in yield was not eliminated by optimized N rates, indicating other rotation effects.

2829. Hunter, A.S., L.A. Alban, C.J. Gerard, W.E. Hall, H.E. Cushman, and R.G. Peterson. 1961. Fertilizer needs of wheat in the Columbia Basin dryland wheat area of Oregon.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. #57.
3-4 1b N needed per bushel of wheat. T: nitrogen rate by variety, soil type

3735. Koehler, F.E.. 1961. Fertilizers and wheat quality.. Proceedings, 12th ann. Fert. Conf. Pacific NW, Salem, OR, p.73-78.
An overview of wheat protein, and relationships to N fertilizers. For soft white pastry type wheat grown in the Columbia Basin region of Oregon there was little increase in protein concentration until sufficient nitrogen had been added to give maximum yields. After this, further increases in nitrogen fertilizer rates caused rather marked increases in protein concentration. If high quality pastry wheat is to be produced, care must be taken not to use excessive amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Yet, for maximum efficiency of production adequate nitrogen must be applied to obtain maximum yields. This means that the nitrogen supply must be rather carefully controlled for pastry wheat production. T: Average protein content of wheat as affected by nitrogen fertilizer.

3885. Leggett, G.E., H.M. Reisenauer and W.L. Nelson. 1959. Fertilization of dryland wheat in eastern Washington.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #602.
This bulletin presents the results of 5 yrs of experimenting with the fertilization of wheat. During 1953-1957, 112 fertility experiments were conducted on dry land wheat throughout eastern Washington. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased yields in 92 of the 112 experiments conducted. Whether nitrogen fertilization increased wheat yields depended largely on the amount of moisture available to the crop. Because of the decline in soil organic matter through years of cropping, the amount of available N released by soils is no longer adequate to support high wheat yields. The introduction of high yield varieties and improved tillage has increased yield potential, and this has increased the demand for N. Application rates (lb N/ac): <10" rainfall - 20-40; 10-15" - 20-60; >15" - 30-80. Different types of N fertilizer did not change yields. T: Summary of the effects of N on wheat yields, 1953-57; effect of N on yield from fallow ground.

8448. Willis, H.. 1990. Wheat - the staff of life.. Acres USA, May 1990, p. 11-14.
The best long-term way to control weeds is to get soil nutrients into balance, with relatively high calcium and phosphorus, and low potassium levels. Soaking seeds in hydrogen peroxide solution for 8 hours should increase germination rate. A general foliar feed recipe is given consisting of 1 qt. liquid phosphoric acid, 1 gallon household ammonia, and 2 gallons liquid fish emulsion. A refractometer can be used to monitor crop health. For growing wheat, use sap from the second and third newest leaves. Later, use the flag leaf. A sugar reading of about 18% or above is good. Readings over 25% are excellent and below 8% poor.

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