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Saturday, January 20, 2018

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754. Bennett, W., D. Pittman, D. Tingey, D. McAllister, H. Peterson, and I. Sampson. 1954. Fifty years of dry land research (at the Nephi Field Station).. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 371.
Summarizes the results of 50 yr of research at the Nephi Field Station in cental Utah. Discusses climate - spring rainfall crucial, fall emergence of wheat correlated to high yields. Ave. annual precipitation is 12.65 in. Tillage experiments - fall verus spring plowing did not affect yields, while late spring plowing lowered yields. Plowing to 8" depth increased yields by 8% compared to plowing at 5". Yields were higher with plowing and no further cultivation on fallow (weeds controlled) than with normal fallow tillage. Yields were poor with stubble mulch. Fertility: A pea green manure increased wheat yields both in the short and long term. Wheat yields were sometimes depressed by green manure, due to moisture shortage or N immobilization. Manure application increased wheat yields in all treatments, and was more beneficial in wet years. N fertilizer increased wheat yields and protein. Burning straw increased yields for 30 yr, then they began to decline. No response to P. Wheat-fallow gave the greatest yields and net returns, and wheat was the only crop distinctly benefitted by summerfallow. Alfalfa depressed the following wheat yields but improved soil fertility. Continuous wheat yielded less than 40% of wheat-fallow. Wheatgrasses showed potential for forage and seed. Spring wheats yielded 60% of winter wheat. Only 32% of rainfall was stored as soil moisture in summerfallow. Overall, yields were low (15-25 bu/ac) and treatment differences were small (1-3 bu). These results predate the semidwarf wheat varieties.

1165. Campbell, C.A., D.W.L. Read, R.P. Zentner, A.J. Leyshon, and W.S. Fer. 1983. First 12 years of a long-term crop rotation study in southwestern Saskatchewan.. Can. J. Plant Sci., 63:91-108.
On a crop-year basis, continuous wheat yields averaged 75% of fallow yields when recommended rates on N and P fertilizers were applied. Yield variability was lower for rotations that included high proportions of fallow than for continuous-type rotations. Fertilizer N applied at recommended rates increased yields of wheat grown on fallow by an average 5% and wheat grown on stubble by an average 7%. Application of P fertilizer at recommended rates increased yields of wheat grown on fallow and stubble by an average 12%. Total wheat production (kg/ha/yr) was inversely related to the frequency of fallow in the rotation. Continuous wheat (N and P applied) outproduced wheat grown on fallow in the 2-yr rotation by 53% over the 12-yr period.

1180. Campbell, C.A., R.P. Zentner and P.J. Johnson. 1988. Effect of crop rotation and fertilization on the quantitative relationship between spring wheat yields, available soil moisture, and precipitation.. Canadian J. Soil Sci., 68(1):1-16.
The effects of crop rotation and fertilization on the quantitative relationship between spring wheat yields, available soil moisture, and growing season precipitation were determined. Stubble-seeded wheat required 68 mm of moisture to produce the first kilogram per hectare of grain; fallow-seeded wheat required about 46mm. The lower threshold level of MU for grain production decreased from about 140mm to the values cited above; this has resulted in substantially greater moisture use efficiency in recent years likely due to better, more timely crop mangement and the improved cereal varieties.

1773. Durst, L., G. Kahnt and E. Kubler. 1988. Effects of preceeding "break crops" on winter wheat and influence of cultural practices.. J. Agron. Crop. Sci., 160:239-249.
After the break crops wheat yield decreased within a range of 4 dt/ha as follows: alfalfa-beans-rape/clover-grass/maize. Raising N-fertilization hardly allowed to improve the value of break crops. The manner of primary tillage exerted stronger influence on the yield than the level of N-fertilization. Using the rotary tiller, at beginning of growth there may be calculated on 15% higher NO3-values and/or higher N-mineralization or N-transformation. Eyespot disease could not be prevented sufficiently and purposefully by another break crop, N-fertilization or primary tillage. Recurrent rotavating suppressed weeds less than ploughing.

2756. Huggins, D.R., W.L. Pan, and J.L. Smith. 1989. Improving yield, percent protein, and N use efficiency of no-till hard red spring wheat through crop rotation and fall N fertilization.. Proceedings, 40th Far West Fertilizer Conference,.
In a field experiment near Pullman, WA, all fall and split fall-spring N applications significantly increased percent protein and N uptake efficiency as compared to all spring applications, while yields were unaffected. Protein increase was attributed to enhanced late season uptake, due to better positional availability of deep soil N. In another experiment, yield of hard red spring wheat was 10% greater when no-tilled into Austrian winter pea stubble (for seed) as compared to winter wheat stubble, while grain N and percent protein were not affected. The difference in yield was not eliminated by optimized N rates, indicating other rotation effects.

2809. Hume, L.. 1982. The long-term effects of fertilizer application and three rotations on weed communities in wheat.. Can. J. Plant Sci., 62:741-750.
The effect of fertilizer application and three rotations (continuous cropping, fallow-wheat, and fallow-wheat-wheat rotations)on the species composition of the weed community was examined using rotations that had been running for 21-22 yrs. Fertilizer application tended to reduce community differences between continuous cropping and short-term wheat-fallow rotations. With the use of 2- or 3-yr wheat-fallow rotations and herbicide application, weed problems can be minimized in southeastern Saskatchewan.

3373. Janzen, H.H.. 1987. Soil organic matter characteristics after long-term cropping to various spring wheat rotations.. Can. J. Soil Sci., 67:845-856.
Various spring wheat rotations with and without perennial forages on total and mineralizable soil organic matter contents. The organic C and N contents of soil after 33 yr of cropping were highest in treatments continuous W and FWWAAA, and decreased with increasing frequency of fallow in the rotation. The inclusion of the perennial forage in the rotation did not increase organic C and N levels above those abserved in the continuous wheat treatment. It was concluded that inclusion of perennial forages in spring wheat rotations for the purpose of enhancing soil fertility and organic matter levles was not justified under semi-arid conditions.

4377. McKay, H.C. and W.A. Moss. 1949. High protein wheat with conservation farming.. U. of Idaho Extension Bull. #181.
Emphasize need for legume - grass rotation to maintain soil productivity. Suggest a 7 yr sweet clover rotation or a 9 yr alfalfa rotation. Yellow sweet clover plus mountain bromegrass or slender wheatgrass; Ladak alfalfa plus smooth brome and big bluegrass (high rainfall) or crested wheatgrass (low rainfall); early spring seeding recommended without nurse crop; methods of establishment, plow sweetclover at 12-22" height; use sweetclover as a surface mulch to prevent erosion. T: soil moisture and sweetclover growth; wheat after sweetclover; yield and protein.

4807. Nelson, A.L.. 1950. Methods of tillage for winter wheat.. WY Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 300.
Fallow/winter wheat production decreased soil N by 33% in the top 6" over 35 years. Continuous cropping lost 24% of the soil N. Crop rotations using green manure every 4th year did not decrease the loss of soil N. Average winter wheat yields (bu/ac) over 34 years for 3 rotations were: oats/rye(GM)/winter wheat/corn - 12.9; oats/peas(GM)/winter wheat/corn - 12.7; fallow/winter wheat - 13.7; oats/corn/winter wheat/rye - 13.2; oats/corn/winter wheat/peas - 14.1; oats/corn/winter wheat/fallow - 13.2. It was observed that green manure took years to break down. Tillage with an eccentric one-way increased winter wheat yields 2 bu/ac over 10 years compared to plowing. The eccentric one-way conserved moisture. Continuous cropping resulted in winter wheat yields 55% of biennial yields following fallow. Soil moisture was 3-4% lower in October after continuous cropping versus fallow.

6359. Smiley, R., D. Wilkins, W. Uddin, S. Ott, K. Rhinhart, and S. Case. 1989. Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat and barley.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 840, p. 68-79..
Rhizoctonia root rot is now considered the most severe root disease of barley in the PNW. It is more important than take-all and Pythium on wheat produced in drier areas (<16" precip.). Based on long-term plots at Pendleton, different management systems are unlikely to greatly influence the biological resistance of soils to Rhizoctonia. Rotational crops susceptible to Rhizoctonia include wheat, barley, peas, chickpeas, lentils, and rapeseed. The disease is less apparent on small grains after legumes than after cereals. Rhizoctonia damage is always highest on no-till systems, but yields may not suffer due to improved water relations under conservation tillage. Australian research indicates that applications of N and P fertilizers can reduce the disease. There appear to be detrimental herbicide interactions with Rhizoctonia, particularly Glean on high pH soils. Also, the use of glyphosate increased disease incidence, perhaps by signalling the pathogens to move from the dying plants to newly seeded ones. A delay of at least 2 weeks is suggested between chem kill and planting of a new crop.

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