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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, January 18, 2018


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Search results on 01/18/18

3288. Pan, W.L. and A.G. Hopkins. 1991. Plant development, and N and P use of winter barley. I Evidence of water stress-induced P deficiency in an eroded toposequence.. Plant Soil 135:9-19.
Winter barley was grown at three landscape positions of a representative toposequence in the Palouse region to identify soil factors which limit plant development and nutrient use efficiency in the eroded slope positions. Subsurface P was severely deficient at eroded ridgetop and sideslope positions. Drying of surface soil during the growing season prevented roots from using much surface applied P. This moisture stress-induced P deficiency suggests that deep placement of P is needed to build subsoil P levels for enhanced productivity on these eroded sites.

5694. Rasmussen, P.E., D.E. Wilkins and C.L. Douglas Jr.. 1985. Annual-crop spring barley response to nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 738, p. 33-34.
Annual cropping is often possible where annual precipitation exceeds 14 inches. It is recommended on soils less than 4 ft deep since the soil profile normally is filled by a single winter's rainfall. Rotation of winter wheat with a spring cereal is often preferred to continuous winter wheat because weed control is easier and stubble more manageable. Fertilizer needs increase sharply under annual cropping because nutrient buildup by fallowing is eliminated and competition for nutrients by residue-decomposing organisms is more intense. In this study, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur response by spring barley was determined for annual-crop conventional and minimum tillage.

961. Bolton, F.E.. 1988. Liquid starter fertilizers on winter wheat and barley in no-till plantings.. Columbia Basin Agr. Res. Sta. Special Report #827, p.33.
Liquid starter fertilizer on winter wheat and barley in no-till plantings.

3259. Pan, W.L., B.A. TIllman, and S.E. Ullrich. 1991. Ammonium and nitrate uptake by barley genotypes in diurnally fluctuating root temperatures simulating till and no-till conditions.. Plant Soil 135:1-8.
The morphological development and N uptake patterns of European and PNW spring barley cultivars were compared under conditions simulating soil temperature differences between till and no-till conditions observed during early spring in eastern WA. All genotypes absorbed more ammonium than nitrate. Overall, the data indicate that lower maximum daytime temperatures of the soil layer likely account for a significant portion of the growth reductions and lower N uptake observed in no-till systems.

6359. Smiley, R., D. Wilkins, W. Uddin, S. Ott, K. Rhinhart, and S. Case. 1989. Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat and barley.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 840, p. 68-79..
Rhizoctonia root rot is now considered the most severe root disease of barley in the PNW. It is more important than take-all and Pythium on wheat produced in drier areas (<16" precip.). Based on long-term plots at Pendleton, different management systems are unlikely to greatly influence the biological resistance of soils to Rhizoctonia. Rotational crops susceptible to Rhizoctonia include wheat, barley, peas, chickpeas, lentils, and rapeseed. The disease is less apparent on small grains after legumes than after cereals. Rhizoctonia damage is always highest on no-till systems, but yields may not suffer due to improved water relations under conservation tillage. Australian research indicates that applications of N and P fertilizers can reduce the disease. There appear to be detrimental herbicide interactions with Rhizoctonia, particularly Glean on high pH soils. Also, the use of glyphosate increased disease incidence, perhaps by signalling the pathogens to move from the dying plants to newly seeded ones. A delay of at least 2 weeks is suggested between chem kill and planting of a new crop.

7885. McGuire, C., R. Lockerman, R. Speilman, L. Welty, L. Prestbye, R. Engel, J. Sims, and J. Bunker. 1989. Nitrogen contribution of annual legumes to the grain protein content of Clark barley production.. Applied Agric. Res. 4:118-121.

8064. Welty, L.E., L.S. Prestbye, R.E. Engel, R.H. Lockerman, R.S. Speilman, J.R. Sims, R.A. Larson. 1988. Nitrogen contribution of annual legumes to subsequent barley production.. Applied Agric. Res. 3:98-104.

9698. Nuttal, W.F., H.G. Zandstra and K.E. Bowren. 1970. Exchangeable ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen related to yields of Conquest barely grown as second or third crop after fallow in NE Saskatchewan.. Can. J. Soil Science 51:371-377..
Exchangeable ammonium- plus nitrate-nitrogen measured to depth of 60 cm in 18 stubble fields during 1967, 1968 and 1969 in Black, Dark Gray and Gray Wooded soils of northeastern Saskatchewan was inversely related by regression analyses to yield increases of Conquest barely. The mean protein content of the grain was significantly related by regression to nitrogen soil tests. Increased yield from nitrogen fertilization resulted in a decrease in phosphorus content of the grain.

9740. Toews, W.H. and R.J. Soper. 1978. Effects of nitrogen source, method of placement and soil type on seedling emergence and barley crop yields.. Can. J. Soil Science 58:311-320..
An inverse correlation between seedling damage caused by urea drilled with the seed and soil cation exchange capacity was determined in eight field trials conducted on soils with a wide range in cation exchange capacity and pH. Seedling damaage increased with increasing rates of urea nitrogen and seriously affected potential grain yields of Conquest barely. Drilled NH4-NO3 caused greater grain yield increases than drilled urea in a manner inversely related to the seedling damage caused by urea. The magnitude of the difference was related to soil cation exchange capacity and pH which jointly influenced the quantity of NH3 volatilized.

10406. Pan, W.L. and A.G. Hopkins. 1991. Plant development, and N and P use of winter barley. II. Responses to tillage and N management across eroded toposequences.. Plant Soil 135:21-29.
Winter barley was grown at three landscape positions of a representative toposequence in the Palouse region. Direct drilling (no-till) into crop residues increased yields by 16% over conventional tillage at an eroded ridgetop position, despite early season growth inhibition. Tillage system had no effect on grain production at other landscape positions that featured higher overall yields. Short-term benefits of no-till systems may be most evident at slope positions where water use is most limited.

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