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Wednesday, April 25, 2018

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2043. Fowler, D.B. and J. Brydon. 1989. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian prairies: placement of urea and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.. Agron. J. 81:518-524.
A practical snow management system, which utilizes no-till seeding into standing stubble immediately after harvest, has permitted expansion of winter wheat production in western Canada. This study examined grain responses to urea and ammonium nitrate fertilizer banded and broadcast at seeding, or broadcast in the late fall or early spring. A moisture shortage biased the results. Fall banding prior to seeding helped reduce volatilization losses of urea (which were as much as 50%), but presented other problems and did not outperform broadcast ammonium nitrate.

2756. Huggins, D.R., W.L. Pan, and J.L. Smith. 1989. Improving yield, percent protein, and N use efficiency of no-till hard red spring wheat through crop rotation and fall N fertilization.. Proceedings, 40th Far West Fertilizer Conference,.
In a field experiment near Pullman, WA, all fall and split fall-spring N applications significantly increased percent protein and N uptake efficiency as compared to all spring applications, while yields were unaffected. Protein increase was attributed to enhanced late season uptake, due to better positional availability of deep soil N. In another experiment, yield of hard red spring wheat was 10% greater when no-tilled into Austrian winter pea stubble (for seed) as compared to winter wheat stubble, while grain N and percent protein were not affected. The difference in yield was not eliminated by optimized N rates, indicating other rotation effects.

3259. Pan, W.L., B.A. TIllman, and S.E. Ullrich. 1991. Ammonium and nitrate uptake by barley genotypes in diurnally fluctuating root temperatures simulating till and no-till conditions.. Plant Soil 135:1-8.
The morphological development and N uptake patterns of European and PNW spring barley cultivars were compared under conditions simulating soil temperature differences between till and no-till conditions observed during early spring in eastern WA. All genotypes absorbed more ammonium than nitrate. Overall, the data indicate that lower maximum daytime temperatures of the soil layer likely account for a significant portion of the growth reductions and lower N uptake observed in no-till systems.

9601. Fredrickson, J.K., F.E. Koehler and H.H. Cheng. 1982. Availablility of N-labeled nitrogen in fertilizer and in wheat straw to wheat in tilled and no-till soil.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46:1218-1222.
In a field study, wheat was grown in microplots under conventional tillage and no-till seedings to compare availability of fertilizer nitrogen for two consecutive crops. The N-labeled ammonium sulfate was surface-applied in May 1980 to a spring wheat crop which utilized 25 to 40% of the fertilizer N, with the highest uptake occurring on no-till. There was no difference in dry matter production between tillage methods. A winter wheat crop was then grown in the same microplots to assess the availability of the residual labeled fertilizer N, and in new microplots which were treated with the spring wheat straw containing 5.20 atom % N and 1.20% total N to assess the availability of straw N. Approximately 9% of the wheat straw N was taken up by the 1980 to 1981 winter wheat crop, while an average of 6% of the residual fertilizer N was utilized. Winter wheat dry matter production was highest on no-till receiving 168 kg N/ha, but no difference was found between the effects of tillage methods on the availability of straw N or on the uptake of residual fertilizer N. Therefore, decreased wheat production on no-till in the Pacific Northwest would not likely result from poorer crop utilization of fertilizer N under no-till than under convenional tillage. Overall low crop N-use efficiencies of the surface-applied fertilizer N were likey due to immobilization and denitrification.

9715. Parsons, B.C. and F.E. Koehler. 1983. Fertilizer use by spring wheat as affected by placement.. Proceedings 35th Annual Northwest Fertilizer Conference, Pasco, Washington, July 17-18. p. 101-106..
High rates of soil erosion are a problem in the steep, dryland wheat producing areas of eastern Washington. Reductions in soil productivity have been measured as the result of top soil loss. One possible reason for lower yields in no-till is the less efficient use of applied fertilizer-N. With residues concentrated on or near the surface in no-tilled soil, decomposition is slower than would be expected if the residue was incorporated.

10406. Pan, W.L. and A.G. Hopkins. 1991. Plant development, and N and P use of winter barley. II. Responses to tillage and N management across eroded toposequences.. Plant Soil 135:21-29.
Winter barley was grown at three landscape positions of a representative toposequence in the Palouse region. Direct drilling (no-till) into crop residues increased yields by 16% over conventional tillage at an eroded ridgetop position, despite early season growth inhibition. Tillage system had no effect on grain production at other landscape positions that featured higher overall yields. Short-term benefits of no-till systems may be most evident at slope positions where water use is most limited.

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