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Thursday, January 18, 2018

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915. Boawn, L.C., C.E. Nelson, F.G. Viets, and C.L. Crawford. 1960. Nitrogen carrier and nitrogen rate influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake by crops.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 614.
Irrigated soils near Prosser. Native soil. Soil pH dropped from 7.4 to 6.0 (0-8") with ammonium sulfate at 160 N/ac. Effect of ammonium nitrate was less, while calcium nitrate had no effect on pH. Fertilizer N recovery was 75-85%. N application increased Mn uptake, but no trends for other elements.

2043. Fowler, D.B. and J. Brydon. 1989. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian prairies: placement of urea and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.. Agron. J. 81:518-524.
A practical snow management system, which utilizes no-till seeding into standing stubble immediately after harvest, has permitted expansion of winter wheat production in western Canada. This study examined grain responses to urea and ammonium nitrate fertilizer banded and broadcast at seeding, or broadcast in the late fall or early spring. A moisture shortage biased the results. Fall banding prior to seeding helped reduce volatilization losses of urea (which were as much as 50%), but presented other problems and did not outperform broadcast ammonium nitrate.

2385. Hammond, M.W. and D.J. Mulla. 1989. Field variation in soil fertility: its assessment and management for potato production.. Presentation at 28th annual WA Potato Conference.
Spatial variability in potato fields for P and K is common and can lead to yield and quality reductions. The potential for variable fertilizer application allows for an efficient solution to the problem, both from an economic and environmental standpoint. The paper presents an example from an irrigated circle in the Columbia Basin. Fertility maps of the field are presented, showing the spatial variability. This information is used to delineate fertility management zones, which receive different rates. Fertilizer efficiency is shown for both the conventional and variable methods. The variable method increased fertilizer costs about $10/ac. on a 200' grid system, where both P and K were mapped. The program will normally increase profits well beyond this expense.

2396. Hammond, M.W. and D.J. Mulla. 1989. Intensive soil sampling and its use in fertilizer programs.. Presentation at 1989 Irrigated Agr. Fertilizer Conference.
Intensive soil sampling on a small grid in farm fields allows one to determine the spatial variability of nutrient levels and to adjust fertilizer applications accordingly. Data from 100, 200, and 400 ft. grids indicates that results from a 200' grid are adequate, but detail is lost at 400'. Soil information can be put on a computer chip for a given field and then used to drive variable fertilizer and pesticide application equipment.

2756. Huggins, D.R., W.L. Pan, and J.L. Smith. 1989. Improving yield, percent protein, and N use efficiency of no-till hard red spring wheat through crop rotation and fall N fertilization.. Proceedings, 40th Far West Fertilizer Conference,.
In a field experiment near Pullman, WA, all fall and split fall-spring N applications significantly increased percent protein and N uptake efficiency as compared to all spring applications, while yields were unaffected. Protein increase was attributed to enhanced late season uptake, due to better positional availability of deep soil N. In another experiment, yield of hard red spring wheat was 10% greater when no-tilled into Austrian winter pea stubble (for seed) as compared to winter wheat stubble, while grain N and percent protein were not affected. The difference in yield was not eliminated by optimized N rates, indicating other rotation effects.

3865. Leggett, G.E.. 1959. Relationships between wheat yield, available moisture and available nitrogen in eastern Washington dryland areas.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #609.
The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the relationships which exist between (1) available moisture and wheat yield and (2) available nitrogen and wheat yield. Using these relationships, it is possible to calculate the amount of fertilizer nitrogen necessary to obtain maximum wheat yield if the supply of available nitrogen in the soil and the amount of moisture available for the crop can be estimated. The results of 90 fertility experiments conducted on dryland wheat in eastern Washington during the period 1953-1957 were used to determine the relationship between wheat yield and available moisture. The results of 62 experiements were used to determine the relationship between wheat yields and available nitrogen. It is possible to calculate nitrogen fertilize recommendations from the results of soil tests for nitrate-nitrogen and available soil moisture by use of these relationships.

3875. Leggett, G.E. and W.L. Nelson. 1960. Wheat production as influenced by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #608.
The average wheat yields resulting from annual cropping with optimum nitrogen fertilization were 13 bu/ac at Ritzville, 23 and Harrington and 29 at Dusty. The yields at Ritzville were too low for this practice to compete economically with the summer-fallow system. The average yields were high enough at Harrington and Dusty for this cropping system to be seriously considered. At Dusty annual cropping resulted in a yearly average yield of 6 bu/ac more than was obtained on fallowed ground. The yield of wheat following Austrian winter peas as a green manure crop at Dusty was greater than that obtained after alfalfa or sweetclover. Soil analysis revealed that nitrogen fertilization resulted in a carryover of nitrate-nitrogen for subsequent crops. This was especially notable under annual cropping and with high rates of application on summer-fallow. The protein content of the wheat was increased markedly by nitrogen fertilization. T: Nitrate-nitrogen in the soil before fertilization and the available soil moisture used by wheat as influenced by nitrogen fertilization cropping practice, Dusty. Yields of barley and wheat as influenced by alfalfa, sweetclover, and Austrian winter peas as green manure crops.

4002. Mahler, R.L., A.R. Halvorson and F.E. Koehler. 1985. Long-term acidification of farmland in northern Idaho and eastern. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 16:83-95.
Soil acidification from N fertilizer first noticed in 1960's; has accelerated since then; critical levels for crops: alfalfa 5.6, wheat 5.2, peas and lentils 5.4; current wheat varieties relatively acid intolerant; liming needed to grow alfalfa on 45% of northern ID fields; acidification may be shifting weed pressures, encouraging diseases, decreasing availability of P and Mo. T: map of pH changes, N fertilizer use.

4594. Morrow, L.. Mar 1990. Fertilizer placement: good all over.. Growers Guide, p. A6, Colfax, WA.
Fertilizer placement near the seed will benefit yields as well as reduce possible movement to groundwater. Starter fertilizer will improve uptake of nitrogen. The starters contain P, which improves plant growth in cold soils. Foliar applications are 85% efficient compared to 45% for soil applied nitrogen.

9715. Parsons, B.C. and F.E. Koehler. 1983. Fertilizer use by spring wheat as affected by placement.. Proceedings 35th Annual Northwest Fertilizer Conference, Pasco, Washington, July 17-18. p. 101-106..
High rates of soil erosion are a problem in the steep, dryland wheat producing areas of eastern Washington. Reductions in soil productivity have been measured as the result of top soil loss. One possible reason for lower yields in no-till is the less efficient use of applied fertilizer-N. With residues concentrated on or near the surface in no-tilled soil, decomposition is slower than would be expected if the residue was incorporated.

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