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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, January 18, 2018

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161. Albrecht, W. A. and N.C. Smith. 1939. Calcium in relation to phosphorous utilization by some legumes and grasses.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 4:260-265.

3288. Pan, W.L. and A.G. Hopkins. 1991. Plant development, and N and P use of winter barley. I Evidence of water stress-induced P deficiency in an eroded toposequence.. Plant Soil 135:9-19.
Winter barley was grown at three landscape positions of a representative toposequence in the Palouse region to identify soil factors which limit plant development and nutrient use efficiency in the eroded slope positions. Subsurface P was severely deficient at eroded ridgetop and sideslope positions. Drying of surface soil during the growing season prevented roots from using much surface applied P. This moisture stress-induced P deficiency suggests that deep placement of P is needed to build subsoil P levels for enhanced productivity on these eroded sites.

5188. Peterson, P.P.. 1920. The management of Palouse soils.. U. of I. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. #12.

5694. Rasmussen, P.E., D.E. Wilkins and C.L. Douglas Jr.. 1985. Annual-crop spring barley response to nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 738, p. 33-34.
Annual cropping is often possible where annual precipitation exceeds 14 inches. It is recommended on soils less than 4 ft deep since the soil profile normally is filled by a single winter's rainfall. Rotation of winter wheat with a spring cereal is often preferred to continuous winter wheat because weed control is easier and stubble more manageable. Fertilizer needs increase sharply under annual cropping because nutrient buildup by fallowing is eliminated and competition for nutrients by residue-decomposing organisms is more intense. In this study, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur response by spring barley was determined for annual-crop conventional and minimum tillage.

9609. Freyman, S. and M.S. Kaldy. 1979. Relationship of soil fertility to cold hardiness of winter wheat crowns.. Can. J. Plant Science 59:853-855..
In two controlled-environment experiments, N fertilizer applied to a Dark Brown prairie soil decreased cold hardiness of winter wheat, while P applied in the absence of N had little effect. When applied together, P counteracted the effect of N and produced plants as hardy as those that had received no fertilizer. The soil was rich in K; consequently applicaton of additional amounts of this element had no effect on cold hardiness. The correlation coefficient between dry weight of crowns and cold hardiness was not significant, but that between water content and LT was highly significant.

26. Lerch, R.N., K.A. Barbarick, D.G. Westfall, R.H. Follett, T.M. McBride, and W.F. Owen. 1990. Sustainable rates of sewage sludge for dryland winter wheat production. 2. Production and income.. J. Production Agric. 3:66-71.
A sewage sludge application rate of 3 T/ac on hard red winter wheat increased gross income by an average of $45/ac/year compared to wheat grown with the typical 50-60 lb fertilizer N/ac. This was primarily due to premiums paid for higher grain protein. Grain levels of P an Zn were increased by sludge application, while levels of Cd, Ni, and Pb have remained low.

125. Ahuja, L.R. and M. Singh. 1964. Evaluation of the effect of different crop rotations on soil productivity.. J. Soil Water Cons. India, 12(1&2), p.45.
1926, Weir came to the conclusion that the crop rotations were practically 75% as efficient as the use of fertilizers in increasing crop yields.

272. Allmaras, R.R., K. Ward, P.E. Rasmussen and C.R. Rohde.. 1978. Soil acidification from long-term use of ammonium-type nitrogen fertilizers.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Progress Report Misc. #78-4, p.55-58.
Long term use of ammonium fertilizers has reduced pH in the plowlayer in proportion to the rate of application; no noticeable difference in 12-18 zone of soil; about 50% of the applied fertilizer was lost, perhaps by denitrification; 1 T of pure limestone raised the pH by 0.5 unit; liming to pH 6.2 improved pea growth and increased soil water storage; potential increase infiltration and reduce erosion with liming. T: pH x depth, N rate, lime requirement.

493. Arthur, Tom. Feb. 1989. Precision application with Spud-Tech.. American Vegetable Grower, p. 14-17..
A Wisconsin company has developed a computer software system and variable fertilizer applicator for use on farm fields. Soil samples are taken for every 2.3 acres to generate a nutrient map, which is loaded into a PROM chip. The chip is inserted into the on-board computer on the Spud-Nik applicator rig, which can vary the rates of six different materials. Both fertilizer and pesticides can be varied according to soil parameters.

365. Anon.. 1990. Canola's sulfur requirements.. Agrichemical Age, February 1990 p. 24-25.
Experience from western Canada indicates the importance of proper sulfur fertilization for rotations including canola. Canola has a high sulfur requirement. A 35 bu. canola crop removes 20-25 lb S/ac, about twice that of a 50 bu. wheat crop. Canola is highly responsive to sulfur fertilization. Soil testing can help determine S needs, as can early season tissue testing. Researchers suggest that the tissue contain one part S for every 7 parts N. Sulfur deficiency symptoms in most crops first appear on younger, upper leaves. Signs unique to canola are delayed and prolonged flowering; pale, whitish flowers; erect leaves on the upper part of the plant; young leaves cup inward and develop a pink, reddish or even purple color on the underside; seed pods will be small and poorly filled.

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