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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Monday, January 22, 2018

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26. Lerch, R.N., K.A. Barbarick, D.G. Westfall, R.H. Follett, T.M. McBride, and W.F. Owen. 1990. Sustainable rates of sewage sludge for dryland winter wheat production. 2. Production and income.. J. Production Agric. 3:66-71.
A sewage sludge application rate of 3 T/ac on hard red winter wheat increased gross income by an average of $45/ac/year compared to wheat grown with the typical 50-60 lb fertilizer N/ac. This was primarily due to premiums paid for higher grain protein. Grain levels of P an Zn were increased by sludge application, while levels of Cd, Ni, and Pb have remained low.

252. Allmaras, R.R., K. Ward and J. Kraft. 1980. Liming effects in a wheat-pea rotation - A progress report.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 571, p. 73-77.
Liming Walla Walla silt loams with pH as low as 5.2 may produce responses as great as 14% in wheat, but pea responses are much less than expected. Fusarium propagule counts have shown a steady decline in the 0 to 6-in layer because of liming, but there has been no liming effect on propagule counts in the 6 to 12-in layer, where Fusarium propagule counts are high enough to damage peas.

754. Bennett, W., D. Pittman, D. Tingey, D. McAllister, H. Peterson, and I. Sampson. 1954. Fifty years of dry land research (at the Nephi Field Station).. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 371.
Summarizes the results of 50 yr of research at the Nephi Field Station in cental Utah. Discusses climate - spring rainfall crucial, fall emergence of wheat correlated to high yields. Ave. annual precipitation is 12.65 in. Tillage experiments - fall verus spring plowing did not affect yields, while late spring plowing lowered yields. Plowing to 8" depth increased yields by 8% compared to plowing at 5". Yields were higher with plowing and no further cultivation on fallow (weeds controlled) than with normal fallow tillage. Yields were poor with stubble mulch. Fertility: A pea green manure increased wheat yields both in the short and long term. Wheat yields were sometimes depressed by green manure, due to moisture shortage or N immobilization. Manure application increased wheat yields in all treatments, and was more beneficial in wet years. N fertilizer increased wheat yields and protein. Burning straw increased yields for 30 yr, then they began to decline. No response to P. Wheat-fallow gave the greatest yields and net returns, and wheat was the only crop distinctly benefitted by summerfallow. Alfalfa depressed the following wheat yields but improved soil fertility. Continuous wheat yielded less than 40% of wheat-fallow. Wheatgrasses showed potential for forage and seed. Spring wheats yielded 60% of winter wheat. Only 32% of rainfall was stored as soil moisture in summerfallow. Overall, yields were low (15-25 bu/ac) and treatment differences were small (1-3 bu). These results predate the semidwarf wheat varieties.

2033. Fowler, D.B. and J. Brydon. 1989. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian Prairies: timing of nitrogen fertilization.. Agron. J. 81:817-825.
Tested the effect of timing of a broadcast application of ammonium sulfate on grain and protein yield and protein concentration. Lower grain yield, grain protein yield and grain protein concentration were attributed to loss of fall applied N in four trials. Increased grain protein concentration was often associated with delayed N availability. Reduced grain and grain protein yield, and increased grain protein concentration were observed for fall and early spring N applications in trials that experienced favorable spring weather followed by a prolonged drought.

2396. Hammond, M.W. and D.J. Mulla. 1989. Intensive soil sampling and its use in fertilizer programs.. Presentation at 1989 Irrigated Agr. Fertilizer Conference.
Intensive soil sampling on a small grid in farm fields allows one to determine the spatial variability of nutrient levels and to adjust fertilizer applications accordingly. Data from 100, 200, and 400 ft. grids indicates that results from a 200' grid are adequate, but detail is lost at 400'. Soil information can be put on a computer chip for a given field and then used to drive variable fertilizer and pesticide application equipment.

2480. Harris, G. and O.B. Hesterman. 1990. Quantifying the nitrogen contribution from alfalfa to soil and two succeeding crops using N-15.. Agron. J. 82:129-134.
This study quantified the N contribution from different alfalfa plant parts to a subsequent corn crop, various soil fractions, and a 2nd year spring barley crop. Corn recovered 17 and 25% of the alfalfa applied N-15 on a loam and sandy loam soil respectively. Alfalfa N-15 remaining in soil averaged 46% of the initial input. Most (96%) of the alfalfa N-15 remaining in soil was recovered in the organic fraction, with microbial biomass accounting for 18% of this recovery. More N-15 was reocvered by corn and in soil from alfalfa shoots than roots/crowns. More was recovered from a spring incorporation than a fall incorporation on the loam soil. Only 1% of the alfalfa N-15 from the original application was recovered by a 2nd year spring barley crop.

4067. Marsh, J.A.P., H.A. Davies and E. Grossbard. 1977. The effect of herbicides on respiration and transformation of nitrogen in two soils. I. Metribuzin and glyphosate.. Weed Research, 17:77-82.
The effects of metribuzin and glyphosate at 100 ppm on carbon dioxide evolution and nitrogen transformation in two soils have been investigated in the laboratory. Both herbicides reduced carbon dioxide evolution from Boddington Barn soil (organic carbon content 1.5%, pH 6.6) at some dates, but neither gave any consistent effects on Triangle soil (organic carbon content 4.0%, pH 5.1). Both metribuzin and glyphosate stimulated mineralization of nitrogen for at least 9 weeks. Only metribuzin on Triangle soil gave any indication of inhibition of nitrofication. Metribuzin degraded more rapidly in Triangle soil than in Boddington Barn.

4302. McDole, R.E., R.W. Harder, and J.P. Jones. 1978. North daho fertilizer guide - Alfalfa.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #447.
Describes crop needs for P,K,S and micronutrients.

4518. Molla, M.A.Z., A.A. Chowdhury, A. Islam and S. Hoque. 1984. Microbial mineralization of organic phosphate in soil.. Plant and Soil, 78:393-399.
Phosphate-dissolving microorganisms were isolated from non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere of plants. These isolates included bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The mixed cultures were most effective in mineralizing organic phosphate and individually Bacillus sp. could be ranked next to mixed cultures.

4766. Murray, T.J.. 1921. The effects of straw on the biological soil processes.. Soil Sci. 12(3):233-259.
Experiments are conducted to describe microbial processes. The addition of straw to soil has a harmful effect on nitrate accumulation. Nitrate being lost is transformed to organic N. The process of ammonification is inhibited above 0.9% straw content of soil. Straw is a source of energy for N fixing bacteria. Straw does not effect the biodiversity of microbe populations. Straw stimulates bacteria reproduction. Nitrates from straw are transformed to organic N and are not available to plants. The intensity of the reaction depends on the amount of the straw. T: many, eg.: Effects of straw on nitrogen fixation. Number of bacteria in soils variously treated. Bacteria in various straw treatments.

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