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Sunday, September 23, 2018

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943. Bolton, F.E.. 1988. Source and method of nitrogen fertilizer and herbicide applications in winter wheat, Moro, 1987.. Columbia Basin Agr. Res. Sta. Special Report #827, p.35.
Source and method of nitrogen fertilizer and herbicide applications in winter wheat, Moro 1987.

3885. Leggett, G.E., H.M. Reisenauer and W.L. Nelson. 1959. Fertilization of dryland wheat in eastern Washington.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #602.
This bulletin presents the results of 5 yrs of experimenting with the fertilization of wheat. During 1953-1957, 112 fertility experiments were conducted on dry land wheat throughout eastern Washington. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased yields in 92 of the 112 experiments conducted. Whether nitrogen fertilization increased wheat yields depended largely on the amount of moisture available to the crop. Because of the decline in soil organic matter through years of cropping, the amount of available N released by soils is no longer adequate to support high wheat yields. The introduction of high yield varieties and improved tillage has increased yield potential, and this has increased the demand for N. Application rates (lb N/ac): <10" rainfall - 20-40; 10-15" - 20-60; >15" - 30-80. Different types of N fertilizer did not change yields. T: Summary of the effects of N on wheat yields, 1953-57; effect of N on yield from fallow ground.

4377. McKay, H.C. and W.A. Moss. 1949. High protein wheat with conservation farming.. U. of Idaho Extension Bull. #181.
Emphasize need for legume - grass rotation to maintain soil productivity. Suggest a 7 yr sweet clover rotation or a 9 yr alfalfa rotation. Yellow sweet clover plus mountain bromegrass or slender wheatgrass; Ladak alfalfa plus smooth brome and big bluegrass (high rainfall) or crested wheatgrass (low rainfall); early spring seeding recommended without nurse crop; methods of establishment, plow sweetclover at 12-22" height; use sweetclover as a surface mulch to prevent erosion. T: soil moisture and sweetclover growth; wheat after sweetclover; yield and protein.

6359. Smiley, R., D. Wilkins, W. Uddin, S. Ott, K. Rhinhart, and S. Case. 1989. Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat and barley.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 840, p. 68-79..
Rhizoctonia root rot is now considered the most severe root disease of barley in the PNW. It is more important than take-all and Pythium on wheat produced in drier areas (<16" precip.). Based on long-term plots at Pendleton, different management systems are unlikely to greatly influence the biological resistance of soils to Rhizoctonia. Rotational crops susceptible to Rhizoctonia include wheat, barley, peas, chickpeas, lentils, and rapeseed. The disease is less apparent on small grains after legumes than after cereals. Rhizoctonia damage is always highest on no-till systems, but yields may not suffer due to improved water relations under conservation tillage. Australian research indicates that applications of N and P fertilizers can reduce the disease. There appear to be detrimental herbicide interactions with Rhizoctonia, particularly Glean on high pH soils. Also, the use of glyphosate increased disease incidence, perhaps by signalling the pathogens to move from the dying plants to newly seeded ones. A delay of at least 2 weeks is suggested between chem kill and planting of a new crop.

8354. Veseth, R.. 1990. Winter wheat nitrogen management in the 18-25 inch precipitation zone.. STEEP Extension Conservation Farming Update, Spring 1990, p. 9-11..
In this rainfall zone, treatments with 25-50% if the N banded below the seed at planting and the remaining N spring broadcast, produced significantly higher yield and N use efficiencies when compared to the average of all other treatments. At the lower precipitation, more N should be fall-applied than in the wetter areas. Banding avoids some of the weed stimulation caused by broadcast N applications.

9552. Bonczkowski, L.C., R.E. Lamond and D.A. Whitney. 1988. Effects of chloride rates and sources on winter wheat in Kansas.. Kansas Fertilizer Research p. 7-12.
For wheat and some other cereal grains, chloride has been reported to have an effect on plant diseases, either suppressing the disease organism or causing the plant to be able to withstand infection. It is hypothesized that yield increases are due to these effects. Researchers from several states have been able to show yield increases from chloride-containing fertilizers. The most common source is potassium chloride. In many cases, soil test potassium levels are high, and most soil test recommendations call for no additional K; however, when small increments of KCl are used, some yield increases have been reported.

9569. Cochran, V.L., L.F. Elliott and R.I. Papendick. 1980. Carbon and nitrogen movement from surface-applied wheat straw.. Soil Science Soc. Am. J. 44:978-982..
The N immobilization potential of surface-applied wheat straw as compared with incorporated straw was evaluated in the laboratotory with soil columns. The columns were leached weekly and C and N content of the leachate was determined. Leachate C/N ratios for straw alone exceeded 20:1 on several occasions and reached a maximum of 56, indicating a potential for N immobilization. Less than 5% of the total C in the straw was recovered in the leachates, providing an inmobilizatoin potential of <5 kg N//ha. Leachate C/N ratios from 1-, 2-, and 4-cm deep soil columns with surface-applied wheaat straw and no ferilizer N ranged up to 55:1; 30:1 and 22:1, respectively, while the highest leachate C/N ratio from the 4-cm mixed straw treatment was 30:1. A significant percentage of mineralized N was immobilized in the 1 and 2 cm of soil by surface residues. Much less N was immobilized in the 4-cm soil columns. Thus, placement of fertilizer N several centimenters below the soil surface would alleviate possible N immobilization from organic C leached from surface crop residues. The amount of applied N recovered in the leachate during 9 weeks of incubation ranged from 60 to 70% for all soil column treatments with or without surface straw. There was no significant difference between treatments. In contrast, the recovery of applied N from the mixed straw treatment was only 36% indicating a much greater potential for N immobilization with mixed than with surface straw. The quantity of the fertilizer N added probably masked the immobilization potential of surface residues. Fertilizer N stimulated early release of C from the straw alone treatment. But after 9 weeks of incubation the overall C loss from both fertilized and unfertilized straw was about 30%.

9732. Smika, D.E. and R. Ellis Jr.. 1971. Soil temperature and wheat straw mulch effects on wheat plant development and nutrient concentration.. Agronomy J. 63:388-391.
Hard red winter wheat was grown with and without wheat straw mulch on the soil surface both in a growth chamber with controlled soil temperatures and in the field where soil temperatures were measured at the crown depth. Concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu in the plant were determined at the end of tillering and at heading.

10070. Mahler, R.. undated. Catena management in northern Idaho.. unpublished handout for Extension agent training.
In northern Idaho, water is often not limiting to crop production. Also, nutrient use efficiency is lower than in drier areas. Where annual precipitation is <17", fall application of all N fertilizer is best. But as rainfall increases, nutrient use efficiency can be increased by applying a greater share of N in the spring. Fertility experiments have shown that growers are probably underfertilizing bottomland positions and overfertilizing slopes for maximum net return from fertilizer. Several questions need to be answered to help improve nutrient efficiency. Is the value 2.7 lb N/bu wheat linear? Research results indicate that only 2.4 lb N/bu is needed at 80-90% of maximum yield. Is residual N used as efficienctly by plants from surface layers versus subsurface layers? What is the best approach to estimating N mineralization rates in a soil? Rates in northern Idaho can vary as much as 100% depending on weather conditions.

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