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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Sunday, January 21, 2018

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765. Benson, V., W. Goldstein, D. Young, J. Williams, and C. Jones. 1988. Impacts of cropping practices on nitrogen use and movement.. Proc. Intl. Conf. on Dryland Farming.
Conventional and PALS practices were used as inputs for the EPIC model to simulate the effects of the systems over 108 years on an Athena soil. Total erosion over 108 yr under PALS was 40% less than the conventional system. Nitrogen loss through water was 25% less under PALS than conventional. Percolation loss of N was zero for both systems. Neither system had significant increase or decrease in yields after 108 yr of erosion.

1819. Elliott, L.F. (ed.). 1987. STEEP - Conservation concepts and accomplishments.. Washington State Univ. Publ., 662pp..
A compilation of 48 papers covering: tillage and plant maagement; erosion and runoff predictions; plant design; pest management; socio-economic; integrated systems; technology transfer for cropping systems; 22 technical notes. T: many

2928. Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta.. 1949. Annual report.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #276.
Sweetclover maintained OM levels, slight loss in W-P; N fertilizer reduced OM losses where straw was removed.

2406. Hanley, Paul (ed.). 1980. Earthcare: Ecological agriculture in Saskatchewan.. Earthcare Information Centre.
A well-written text covering all aspects of biological farming in the prairie region of Saskatchewan. Practices apply to small and large farms. Includes reports from selected farms. References at the end of chapters.

2735. Horner, G.M., M.M. Oveson, G.O. Baker, and W.W. Pawson.. 1960. Effect of cropping practices on yield, soil organic matter and erosion in the Pacific Northwest wheat region.. PNW Technical bulletin 1; USDA-ARS and Ag. Expt. Sta.'s of ID, OR, WA.
Summary of soil management experiments conducted over 40 yrs at six experiment stations. Covers: crop rotation, fertilization, and use of organic material. Some results: sweetclover and alfalfa were more effective than other legumes in increasing wheat yield. Yields of wheat were markedly affected by the sequences of cropping. Return of straw to soil decreased yields slightly under low N conditions. Organic and mineral N had no effect on yields in low precip. zones. Also covers runoff and erosion. T: many, eg.: effect of crop rotations on crop yield; crop yield as affected by grass/clover; effect of OM on wheat yield.

3460. Kaiser, V.G.. 1965. Soil and water conservation for dry farmlands of Columbia River Basin.. Paper presented at Tri-state meeting of Supervisors and SCS personnel, Spokane, WA.
Discusses historical farming trends in eastern WA. Estimates yields to be 30% lower than their potential due to soil erosion. Cites past practices such as sweet clover use, hilltop windbreaks, and grass waterways that were very benificial. Proposes farm program change from acreage base to land capability base. More emphasis on spring wheat versus winter wheat, which reduces erosion by about 50%.

3481. Kaiser, V.G. and A.W. Jacklin. 1939. Annual progress report for field test "effect of cropping systems".. USDA-SCS.
Better sweetclover stands when seeded alone or with grass; peas better than cereals; hi (>10 lb/ac) seeding rate leads to better stands; best seeding date April 10-May 7; more weeds in second year when grown with companion crop; sweetclover/grass mix gave greater wheat yield increase than SC alone, also had less erosion; excellent thorough study. T: Yield, erosion X agronomic management.

4256. McDole, R.E.. 1982. Divided slopefarming for soil erosion control under dryland crop production.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #638.
When a slope is >300-400' length, and slope exceeds 15-25%, divided slopes can be used and reduce erosion 50-75%; increased production costs are about 9% ($2.50) per acre per year.

4377. McKay, H.C. and W.A. Moss. 1949. High protein wheat with conservation farming.. U. of Idaho Extension Bull. #181.
Emphasize need for legume - grass rotation to maintain soil productivity. Suggest a 7 yr sweet clover rotation or a 9 yr alfalfa rotation. Yellow sweet clover plus mountain bromegrass or slender wheatgrass; Ladak alfalfa plus smooth brome and big bluegrass (high rainfall) or crested wheatgrass (low rainfall); early spring seeding recommended without nurse crop; methods of establishment, plow sweetclover at 12-22" height; use sweetclover as a surface mulch to prevent erosion. T: soil moisture and sweetclover growth; wheat after sweetclover; yield and protein.

5095. Pawson, W.W., O.L. Brough, J.P. Swanson and G.M. Horner. 1961. Economics of cropping systems and soil conservation in the Palouse.. PNW Technical Bull. #2.
A thorough examination of crop rotations and their impact on farm income and soil conservation; wheat was always the most profitable crop; when grown with N fertilizer, wheat can maintain soil organic matter; farm program allotments greatly influenced profitably of various rotations; using different rotations on different land capability units was recommended; with acreage allotments, alfalfa hay rotations were profitable; on eroded upper slopes, barley and alfalfa were recommended, with wheat on the lower slopes. T: crop rotations X soil loss, organic matter change, returns

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