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Sunday, July 22, 2018


Browse on keywords: erosion conservation

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187. Allamaras, R.R., S.C. Gupta, J.L. Pikul and C.E. Johnson.. 1980. Soil erosion by water as related to management of tillage and surface residues.. USDA-ARS, Oakland, CA..
Soil erosion by water was estimated for combinations of tillage and residue handling, terracing, and contouring. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was applied for conservation planning. Slope steepness primarily determined which combination of management practices was needed. Erosion could not be held below tolerance values for wheat-fallow sequences on slopes exceeding 20%. T: Distribution of K values within cropland of study area. Cover and management (C) values for study area. Tillage operations in wheat-fallow rotation, and associated reduction in surface residue.

216. Allmaras, R.R.. 1983. Soil conservation: Using climate, soils, topography and adapted crops information to select conserving practices.. Dryland Agriculture. Am. Soc. Agron., Monograph #23, pp139-153.
Systematic use of land resource information is necessary to proper selection of conservation practices. This chapter shows the combined use of resource information and soil erosion equations to proj ect soil erosion hazard and associated types of ersion control pra ctices at specific locals. Biophysical "land resource regions" ar e used to type land areas. T: Production of wheat straw in select ed land resource regions.

2518. Helm, Douglas. 1981. Soil conservation in the Palouse country: oral history interview of Verle Kaiser. Bunchgrass Historian, Vol. 16, No. 3.
Kaiser describes early soil conservation efforts in the Palouse and the problems they tried to correct. States that 90-95% of pea residues and 75% of wheat straw was burned in the old days. Cut moldboards in half to make a "stubby" plow that wouldn't move as much soil downhill. Promoted straw spreaders on combines. Adapted equipment designed for midwest conditions to the Palouse. Promoted the planting of alfalfa/grass on the hilltops for 5-6 yr, then crop for 2-3 yr, then back to alfalfa. introduced biennial sweetclover (planted with peas) as a green manure, which boosted wheat yields 25%. Also added organic matter and improved infiltration with its taproot. Use of strip cropping is limited in the Palouse topography. Need long gentle slopes of 5-12%. States that 80% of the soil loss comes from steep slopes that are summerfallowed. Advocates standing stubble to increase soil moisture storage and erosion control. States that highest yielding ground always has history of manure, and loss of livestock in the Palouse has been a problem. Tillage erosion has removed 2-3 times the soil of water erosion on the hilltops and steep slopes. With government programs, the farmer is no longer the "manager" of the farm, and planning becomes difficult. Barley a good conservation crop when spring planted. Could cut the erosion in the Palouse in half by shifting from a winter to a spring crop.

3170. . 1988. International Symposium on Windbreaks Proceedings.. Agric. Ecosystems, Environ. 22/23.

5030. Papendick, R.I.. 1984. Soil conservation and management in the Palouse. p. 234-244.. IN: B.R. Bertramson (ed.). History of the Dept. of Agronomy and Soils, WSU, Pullman, WA.
An historical overview.

5434. Pubols, B.H., A.E. Orr and C.P. Heisig. 1939. Farming systems and practices and their relationship to soil conservation and farm income in the wheat region of Washington.. WA State Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull. #374.
In a survey of 225 farms, different soil conservation practices were documented. "Inertia, insufficient farm income, lack of appreciation of the seriousness of the situation, or an attitude of indifference toward soil conservation even though the situation is recognized" are some of the reasons for the limited effort made to conserve soil. Some look at the situation from the short-term viewpoint and apparently have no interest in the future. T: Number of farmers reporting use of selected conservation practices.

5725. Rasmussen, V.P. and R.L. Newhall. 1989. High residue conservation tillage increases soil moisture and profits. IN: Utah Agricultural Statistics, 1989. p. 121-124. Utah Agricultural Statistics Service, Salt Lake City, UT.
Three years of data are reported for several locations comparing a number of consevation tillage and cropping systems. The no-till and chemical fallow were better both for conserving soil and moisture, and generated the highest net returns. The chem fallow conserved about 1-2 inches of soil moisture. Erosion under the no-till chem fallow ranged from 1-5 T/ac compared to 17-30 T/ac with conventional tillage. The study included tests of continuous cropping, but more years are needed to make an economic comparison.

6776. Taylor, M.C. and V.W. Baker. 1947. Economic aspects of soil conservation in the Palouse wheat-pea area.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #494.
The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the conservation program on farm income during the sixth year of a 6-yr period. The purpose was to evaluate the economic effects of the program currently recommended for the area and to contribute information for the improvement of conservation planning. It was found that there was no significant relationship of current farm income to the total conservation inputs over a 6-yr period. There was no significant or consistent relationship of crop yields or labor and machinery requirements to conservation inputs. It was noted, however, that by slight shifts in land use and farm organization the higher conservation score farmers were able to maintain net incomes comparable to those of other farmers. T: Percentage of crop land in grass-legumes on 69 sample Palouse farms by conservation score groups, 1941 to 1946. Percentage of crop land in sweetclover used as green manure crop on 69 sample Palouse farms by conservaton score groups, 1941 - 1946.

7712. Young, A., R.J. Cheatle, and P. Muraya. 1987. The potential of agroforestry for soil conservation. Part 3. Soil changes under agroforestry (SCUAF): a predictive model.. ICRAF working paper no. 44..
Predicts soil carbon changes in different climatic zones under various agroforestry management schemes. Can be used for prediction of changes under other land use as well.

8422. Anon.. 1990. Gully washers show strip value.. Whitman Co. Gazette, Colfax, WA p. 9. 7/19/90.
Several cloudbursts in Whitman Co. during May and June moved 150-200 tons of soil per acre off slopes. Some flats were covered with six to 18 inches of sediment. Rills and gullies that started on summer fallow strips were mostly blocked or dissipated by the cropped strips below. A field that had been chiseled but not rodweeded did not erode at all. On long summer fallow slopes, there were gullies 30 inches wide and a foot or more deep.

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