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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

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Search results on 01/23/18

1219. Caplan, A.J.. 1986. Cost return and relative soil loss comparisons of alternative tillage systems.. MS Thesis.
Minimum tillage is less expensive than conventional. No-till is most expensive due to high chemical inputs. In the low precipitation zone, minimum till was 1.19 times less expenxive than conventional. Annual peas/wheat in high precip. zone was 1.5 times less expensive with min-till than conventional.

1369. Cochran, V.L., R.I. Papendick and C.D. Fanning. 1970. Early fall crop establishment to reduce winter runoff and erosion.. J. Soil Water Conservation, 25(6):231-234.
An experiment was done to measure differences in seeding dates and double disk vs. deep furrow planting on erosion and yield of wheat. The study found that earlier (Sept.) seeded wheat planted at wider spacings (16 in.) with a deep furrow drill had higher yields and less erosion that conventional double disk October seeded wheat. T: Influence of seeding method (deep furrow vs. double disk) on wheat yield.

3348. Jaffri, M.Z.. 1956. Effect of farming systems on soil losses, organic matter changes, and trends in productivity of land in the Palouse wheat-pea area.. M.S. Thesis, Washington State College, Pullman, WA.
An excellent study to determine the effect of cropping systems, tillage practices, fertilizers, and conservation practices on soil loss and soil organic matter changes, and to future soil productivity. T: many.

4675. Mulla, D.J.. 1986. Distribution of slope steepness in the Palouse region of Washington.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:1401-1406.
The quantitative analysis of topography conducted in this study shows that considerable spatial variability of slope steepness occurs between differing slope aspects of large areas in the Palouse. This information could be used in developing improved runoff and erosion prediction models that account for spatial variability of topography over large areas. Gaussian frequency distributions provided the best statistical description of the data.

4684. Mulla, D.J.. 1988. Using geostatistics and spectral analysis to study spatial patterns in the topography of southeastern Washington State, USA.. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 13:389-405.
Topography from 4 areas of southeastern WA was analyzed using semivariograms and spectral analysis. Two-dimensional spectral analysis provided more detail concerning orientation and wavelengths of the periodic topographic patterns than the semivariogram analysis. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses. A quantitative method of topographic classification could lead to improved land use management decisions.

5771. Reganold, J.P., L.F. Elliott and Y.L. Unger. 1987. Long-term effects of organic and conventional farming on soil erosion.. Nature, 330(26 Nov.):370-372.
The long-term effects (since 1948) of organic and conventional farming on selected properties of the same soil are compared. The organically-farmed soil had significantly higher organic matter content, thicker topsoil depth, higher polysaccharide content, lower modulus of rupture and less soil erosion than the conventionally-farmed soil. This study indicates that, in the long term, the organic farming system was more effective than the conventional farming system in reducing soil erosion and, therefore, in maintaining soil productivity. T: Mean values of conventional and organic farm soil properties.

5909. Roe, R.D.. 1989. 1989 National water quality project proposal south fork Palouse River watershed.. Soil Conservation Service, Whitman Co., Colfax, WA.
A proposal for coordinated watershed approach in water quality improvement through conservation farming. T: Total acres to be treated in the project area by practice. Estimated cost-share by practice and total cost-shares needed for the project area. Estimated tons of soil that would be saved.

5761. Reganold, J.P.. 1988. Comparison of soil properties as influenced by organic and conventional farming systems.. Am. J. Alt. Agric., 3(4):144-155.
This paper summarizes data from previous and current studies on two adjacent farms, one organically managed and the other conventionally managed, in the Palouse region of eastern Washington. The 320-hectare organic farm has been managed without the use of commercial fertilizers and only limited use of pesticides since the farm was first plowed in 1909. The 525-hectare conventional farm, first cultivated in 1908, began receiving recommended rates of commercial fertilizers and pesticides in 1948 and the early 1950's, respectively. The organically-farmed Naff silt loam soil had significantly higher organic matter, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, extractable potassium, water content, pH, polysaccharide content, enzyme levels, and microbial biomass than did the conventionally-farmed Naff soil. Also, the organically-farmed soil had significantly lower modulus of rupture, more granular structure, less hard and more friable consistence, and 16 centimeters more topsoil. This topsoil difference between farms was attributed to significantly greater erosion on the conventionally-farmed soil between 1948 and 1985. The difference in erosion rates between farms was most probably due to their different crop rotation systems; i.e., only the organic farm included a green manure crop in its rotation, and it had different tillage practices. These studies indicate that, in the long-term, the organic farming system was more effective than the conventional farming system in maintaining the tilth and productivity of the Naff soil and in reducing its loss to erosion.

5855. Rockie, W.A.. 1933. Some important effects of summer fallow system of farming on soil erosion.. Northwest Sci. 7(1):19-22.
Discusses winter erosion, straw burning, and erosion from summer rains. Concludes all are from the summer fallow system. T: Soil moisture content at end of dry summer season on fallowed and variously cropped land in 1932.

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