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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Friday, January 19, 2018

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Search results on 01/19/18

1819. Elliott, L.F. (ed.). 1987. STEEP - Conservation concepts and accomplishments.. Washington State Univ. Publ., 662pp..
A compilation of 48 papers covering: tillage and plant maagement; erosion and runoff predictions; plant design; pest management; socio-economic; integrated systems; technology transfer for cropping systems; 22 technical notes. T: many

2163. George, G.O.. 1981. Best management practices (BMP) demonstration and evaluation project.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report #623, p.43-44.
In 1979, the program was expanded to evaluate recognized Best Management Practices (BMP's) and demonstrate their impacts on water quality. All terraces will reduce erosion and sediment and improve water quality, but may not bring soil losses within tolerance limits. Stubble mulch and conservation tillage will reduce water pollution by keeping erosion from initiating during low rainfall or runoff conditions. Conservation practices are more effective in keeping soil losses within established tolerance limits than terraces. They are not as effective in removing sediment pollutants as the terrace once sediment is picked up by the runoff water. Grassed waterways and stream buffer strips reduce sediment delivery to streams, but have little or no impact on in-field erosion. Where combinations of practices were utilized and measurements were made there was decidedly less erosion and, therefore, less sediment for water pollution.

2735. Horner, G.M., M.M. Oveson, G.O. Baker, and W.W. Pawson.. 1960. Effect of cropping practices on yield, soil organic matter and erosion in the Pacific Northwest wheat region.. PNW Technical bulletin 1; USDA-ARS and Ag. Expt. Sta.'s of ID, OR, WA.
Summary of soil management experiments conducted over 40 yrs at six experiment stations. Covers: crop rotation, fertilization, and use of organic material. Some results: sweetclover and alfalfa were more effective than other legumes in increasing wheat yield. Yields of wheat were markedly affected by the sequences of cropping. Return of straw to soil decreased yields slightly under low N conditions. Organic and mineral N had no effect on yields in low precip. zones. Also covers runoff and erosion. T: many, eg.: effect of crop rotations on crop yield; crop yield as affected by grass/clover; effect of OM on wheat yield.

3210. Bhatti, A.U.. 1990. Spatial variability and geostatistical estimation of soil properties and wheat yield on eroded lands in the Palouse region.. Chpt. 3, PhD. Dissertation, Dept. of Agronomy & Soils, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164.
Spatial variability of organic matter, soil P, and wheat yields was studied using classical statistical and geostatistical approaches on two commercial wheat farms in the Palouse region of eastern Washington. Geostatistics indicated strong spatial relationship of soil properties and wheat yields with a range of influence of 50-200 m. The two sites differed greatly in spatial patterns due primarily to differences in topography and the extent of erosion and topsoil loss. As a consequence of topsoil loss and reductions in organic matter, it was demonstrated that spatial patterns in yield and soil phosphorus were strongly correlated with organic matter patterns. Remote sensing of soil organic matter and the use of geostatistics offers a way to quickly assess spatial patterns in grain yield and available phosphorus.

3348. Jaffri, M.Z.. 1956. Effect of farming systems on soil losses, organic matter changes, and trends in productivity of land in the Palouse wheat-pea area.. M.S. Thesis, Washington State College, Pullman, WA.
An excellent study to determine the effect of cropping systems, tillage practices, fertilizers, and conservation practices on soil loss and soil organic matter changes, and to future soil productivity. T: many.

5771. Reganold, J.P., L.F. Elliott and Y.L. Unger. 1987. Long-term effects of organic and conventional farming on soil erosion.. Nature, 330(26 Nov.):370-372.
The long-term effects (since 1948) of organic and conventional farming on selected properties of the same soil are compared. The organically-farmed soil had significantly higher organic matter content, thicker topsoil depth, higher polysaccharide content, lower modulus of rupture and less soil erosion than the conventionally-farmed soil. This study indicates that, in the long term, the organic farming system was more effective than the conventional farming system in reducing soil erosion and, therefore, in maintaining soil productivity. T: Mean values of conventional and organic farm soil properties.

5780. Reganold, J.P.. 1989. Farming's organic future.. New Scientist, 10 Jun 1989.
Describes the results of the paired farm study of Lambert-Claussen in eastern WA. Lamabert's long-term use of green manure and alfalfa/grass in rotation has maintained his yields and soil fertility, and apparently limited soil erosion to about 6" less than the neighboring field over the past 50 yr.

5761. Reganold, J.P.. 1988. Comparison of soil properties as influenced by organic and conventional farming systems.. Am. J. Alt. Agric., 3(4):144-155.
This paper summarizes data from previous and current studies on two adjacent farms, one organically managed and the other conventionally managed, in the Palouse region of eastern Washington. The 320-hectare organic farm has been managed without the use of commercial fertilizers and only limited use of pesticides since the farm was first plowed in 1909. The 525-hectare conventional farm, first cultivated in 1908, began receiving recommended rates of commercial fertilizers and pesticides in 1948 and the early 1950's, respectively. The organically-farmed Naff silt loam soil had significantly higher organic matter, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, extractable potassium, water content, pH, polysaccharide content, enzyme levels, and microbial biomass than did the conventionally-farmed Naff soil. Also, the organically-farmed soil had significantly lower modulus of rupture, more granular structure, less hard and more friable consistence, and 16 centimeters more topsoil. This topsoil difference between farms was attributed to significantly greater erosion on the conventionally-farmed soil between 1948 and 1985. The difference in erosion rates between farms was most probably due to their different crop rotation systems; i.e., only the organic farm included a green manure crop in its rotation, and it had different tillage practices. These studies indicate that, in the long-term, the organic farming system was more effective than the conventional farming system in maintaining the tilth and productivity of the Naff soil and in reducing its loss to erosion.

6684. Stephens, D.E.. 1944. Effect of tillage and cropping practices on runoff, erosion, and crop yields in the wheat growing areas of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon.. USDA-SCS. Conservation practices on wheat lands of the Pacific Northwest..
An excellent summary of the dryland experiment station research in WA, ID and OR. Describes research on stubble mulching, tillage implements, crop rotations, fallow, etc. The use of sweetclover or alfalfa-grass were encouraged. T: yield, runoff, soil loss by tillage, rotation, fertilizer.

6946. University of Idaho. 1977. Priorities for erosion - sedimentation research in the Pacific Northwest.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Misc. Series #37.
Describes the background, current research and future needs, related to hydrology and erosion, soil and crop management, and socio-economic concerns.

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