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Saturday, September 22, 2018

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4884. Northwest Regional Council. 1940. Soil conservation in outline.. .
A general, but quite good, treatment - discussion of the condition in 1940.

1819. Elliott, L.F. (ed.). 1987. STEEP - Conservation concepts and accomplishments.. Washington State Univ. Publ., 662pp..
A compilation of 48 papers covering: tillage and plant maagement; erosion and runoff predictions; plant design; pest management; socio-economic; integrated systems; technology transfer for cropping systems; 22 technical notes. T: many

1699. Douglas, C.L. and P.E. Rasmussen. 1985. Rill erosion effect on wheat yield.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 738, p. 12-13.
Rill erosion does have a detrimental effect on grain yield when it occurs within the growing crop. Even small rills appear to cause a yield loss, apparently because of decreased plant survival. The estimated yield loss, if a rill occurred every 10 ft across a slope, would be 7 bushels of grain per acre. T: effect of aspect and slope steepness on grain yield and tiller density. Winter wheat yields and tiller density in rill and nonrill areas.

2173. George, G.O., S. Lund, R.R. Allmaras and G. Fischbacher. 1979. Monitoring terrace effectiveness in controlling soil erosion and. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report #547, p.39-42.
During the summer of 1978, one field in each of five counties in the Columbia Basin dryland was selected for monitoring of runoff, erosion, and sedimentation from October 1, 1978 to May 1, 1979. The study has verified that terraces will reduce soil erosion significantly in the Columbia Basin dryland wheat area of Oregon and consequently will reduce stream pollution from sediment. T: Some measured soil erosion in the 1977-78 winter in eastern Oregon.

2294. Greenwalt, R.N., J.L. Pikul Jr. and J.F. Zuzel. 1983. Soil frost penetration under conventional and conservation tillage.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report #680, p.20-23.
This research evaluates the effects of surface crop residues and tillage practices on overwinter soil temperatures and soil frost penetration. Soil frost penetration was significantly greater in the fall-plowed than in the no-tilled winter wheat plots because surface residues in the no-till treatment acted as a thermal insulator creating warmer soil temperatures when compared to the bare soil surface of the fall plow plot. Frost penetration was three times greater in depth and frozen soil layers were present twice as long in the conventional tillage system as compared to the conservation tillage system. Because infiltration rates can be greatly reduced when frozen soil layers are present, nearly all precipitation on frozen soil runs off or evaporates. Those tillage management techniques which leave adequate crop residues on the surface should be considered as a means to reduce or eliminate soil losses caused by soil erosion. T: Depth of soil frost penetration in fall-plow and no-till plots. Comparison of soil temperatures between the fall-plow and no-till treatments.

4546. Moore, W.B. and S.F. Miller. 1987. Off-site economic impacts of soil erosion. p. 633-641.. IN: L.F. Elliott (ed.). STEEP - Conservation Concepts and Accomplishments. WSU Publications..
Per ton off-site costs for erosion are estimated at $2.81 - $5.43. On-site costs are estimated at $1.27 - $3.04 per ton. This results in an estimated total erosion cost range of $4.08 - $8.47 per ton of soil or $48.96 - $101.64 per acre with a 12 T/ac erosion rate. Off-site impacts are to: reservoir capacity/navigation; road systems; municipal/industrial water; hydroelectric power; fishery habitat; flood damage/flood control. Estimated costs would be higher if impacts to recreation, irrigation and effects of fertilizer/pesticide residues were included. T: Potential off-site erosion impacts. Economic estimates of off-site erosion impacts study.

4931. Oldenstadt, D.L., R.E. Allen, G.W. Bruehl, D.A. Dillman, and E.L. Michalson. 1982. Solutions to Environmental and Economic Problems (STEEP). Science, 217(3):904-909.
Describes one model for organizing and mobilizing scientific resources to address the highly complex and costly problem of soil erosion in the PNW. With a USDA grant to the Agr. Expt. Sta.'s in WA, OR and ID, plus supplementary state and federal funds, STEEP awards intermediate-term grants (15yr) for research in 5 areas: tillage and plant management, plant design, erosion and run-off predictions, pest management, and socioeconomics of erosion control. Most projects require collaboration across disciplines, and, sometimes, a╚ross state boundaries. Results (after 6 yrs) indicate STEEP model might be applicable to other regions and problems.

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