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10526. Berardi, G.M.. 1977. An energy and economic analysis of conventional and organic wheat farming.. p. 439-447 In: R.C. Loehr (ed.). Food, Fertilizer, and agricultural residues. Ann Arbor Sci. Publ..
Twenty farms growing winter wheat in PA and NY were selected for study, with ten using conventional fertilizers and ten using organic fertilizers. The average profitability for the conventional farms was $59.50/ha versus $14.55 for the organic farms. Wheat production by conventional farming pracctices averaged 48% higher energy inputs and only 29% higher yields than wheat produced by organic farmers. It was primarily the use of nitrogen fertilizers that resulted in the higher total energy inputs for the conventional farms.