WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

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3298. Burt, O.R. and M.S. Stauber. 1989. Dryland cropping decision theory with application to saline seep control.. J. Production Agr. 2:47-57.
A model for decision making in a flex-crop system is presented, based on plant available soil water at seeding, previous land use, and economic return. The strategy can be used for winter or spring wheat.

3098. Swanson, Guy. 1990. Annual production of spring wheat in Montana and the Columbia Basin. Bumper Times special edition, Jan. 31, 1990; p. 6; S. 4305 University Rd., Spokane, WA 99206.
Minimum till continuous spring wheat produced the highest net returns in a Montana study. The cost of Roundup reduced net returns in no-till, although no-till had the highest gross returns. John Rae, a WA farmer, has compared continuous no-till spring wheat with his normal winter wheat-fallow system. The continuous system has produced $350/ac more gross returns over five years in his 9" rainfall area.

7786. Engel, R., L.E. Welty, R. Lockerman, J. Bergman, G. Kushnak, L. Prestbye, and J. Sims. 1987. Annual legumes and cereal grain rotations in Montana.. Montana AgResearch 4(3):1-4.
Montana researchers examined the performance of several grain legumes (dry pea, chickpea, lentil) and their effect on a subsequent barley crop. Dry pea production was the highest. A subsequent barley crop rsponded to added N fertilizer at three out of six sites. Barley yields following legumes were generally equal to or greater than yields following fallow. The annual legumes contributed to soil N and reduced the fertilizer N needed to reach maximum yield by 40-55 lb N/ac when compared to recrop barley. This translated into savings of $10-14/ac for fertilizer N.

9923. Kendall, D.. 1989. He sets his own grain prices.. The New Farm, Jan. 1989, p. 54-59..
Zane Zell of Shelby, Montana has grown as many as 1000 acres with no purchased chemicals, and only 12" annual rainfall, while producing the same average yields as conventional farmers. Zell says the key to his fertility is the Austrian winter pea green manure crop he grows. Besides fuel, the only other purchased input he uses is rock phosphate, about every four or five years. Weed control is achieved by timely field preparation with a plow and a rod weeder. Because of the growing demand for organically grown food, Zell is sold out a month after harvest. By turning his wheat grain into flour and cleaning and bagging his speciality legumes, he is able to increase his profits by up to 350%.

10267. Jamtgaard, Keith. 1991. Discovering the social impacts of sustainable agriculture in Montana.. AERO Sun Times 18(2):6-8..
A survey of over 1000 Montana farmers and ranchers was conducted to determine the potential impacts of alternative agricultural practices. Seven major findings were reported. Sustainable farmers are quite similar to conventional operations in terms of size and land tenure. Sustainable farmers tended to report higher gross sales and receipts than otherwise comparable operations. There was little difference in off-farm income or government payments due to farm management. More family members of sustainable producers contribute labor to the operation. There were substantial differences in the types of goods and services purchased by sustainable and conventional farmers. Both supported local merchants equally. Sustainable operators tended to be somewhat more optimistic about intergenerational issues. Farmers perceive greater management complexity to be a large barrier to wider adoption of sustainable agriculture.

11037. Anon.. 1990. Annual production of spring wheat in Montana and the Columbia Basin.. Bumper Times Special Report, Spokane, WA. 1/31/90, p. 6..
In Montana, annual minimum till spring wheat produced the highest net returns compared to other summer fallow and winter wheat/spring wheat rotations. No-till continuous wheat produced the highest gross returns, but chemical costs reduced net returns. A farmer near Walla Walla, WA, had compared annual spring wheat to winter wheat-fallow. The annual system grossed $350/ac more than the crop-fallow system over five years. In the annual system, fields are swept after harvest and rodweeded in the fall to avoid the "green bridge." Fields are sprayed with Roundup and seeded to spring wheat as early as possible using a no-till drill. This often is in February. Average rainfall is 9".

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