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Monday, July 23, 2018

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1819. Elliott, L.F. (ed.). 1987. STEEP - Conservation concepts and accomplishments.. Washington State Univ. Publ., 662pp..
A compilation of 48 papers covering: tillage and plant maagement; erosion and runoff predictions; plant design; pest management; socio-economic; integrated systems; technology transfer for cropping systems; 22 technical notes. T: many

1521. Davies, D.B.. 1977. Soil management. 3rd edition.. Farming Press Ltd., Suffolk..
Soil compaction increased chances of root disease (take-all, foot rot); problems of loss of soil structure; leads to reduced fertilizer use efficiency, especially N & P; winter cereals less sensitive to poor structure than spring cereals; 2-3 yr grass/alfalfa stand helps restore structure; benifits of subsoiling on silt soils; best time is when soil is dry.

2597. Herrman, T. and M.V. Wiese. 1984. Foot rot control in winter wheat using tillage, rotation, variety, fungicide, and nitrogen variables.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #737.
Worst infection with conventional tillage; Stephens a more resistant variety; 3 yr rotation had lowest level, also lower levels with peas versus lentils; fungicides increased yields 4-6 bu/ac; no effect of level of N fertilizer; evidence from other areas that green manure could reduce infection levels; late fall tillage reduces infection; reduced tillage intensifies other diseases such as Cephalosporium stripe and Fusarium root rot. T: disease incidence by tillage, variety, fungicide.

5981. Rovira, A.D.. 1986. Influence of crop rotation and tillage on Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat.. Phytopathology, 76(7):669-673.
Rhizoctonia bare patch was more severe in direct drilled wheat than in wheat sown into cultivated soil. The area of affected crop was consistently larger when wheat followed a mixed annual pasture of grasses and Medicago spp. than when wheat followed wheat, peas, or grass-free pasture of Medicago spp. All isolates of R. solani were pathogenic on wheat, barley, peas, Medicago spp., annual ryegrass, and barley grass.

6359. Smiley, R., D. Wilkins, W. Uddin, S. Ott, K. Rhinhart, and S. Case. 1989. Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat and barley.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 840, p. 68-79..
Rhizoctonia root rot is now considered the most severe root disease of barley in the PNW. It is more important than take-all and Pythium on wheat produced in drier areas (<16" precip.). Based on long-term plots at Pendleton, different management systems are unlikely to greatly influence the biological resistance of soils to Rhizoctonia. Rotational crops susceptible to Rhizoctonia include wheat, barley, peas, chickpeas, lentils, and rapeseed. The disease is less apparent on small grains after legumes than after cereals. Rhizoctonia damage is always highest on no-till systems, but yields may not suffer due to improved water relations under conservation tillage. Australian research indicates that applications of N and P fertilizers can reduce the disease. There appear to be detrimental herbicide interactions with Rhizoctonia, particularly Glean on high pH soils. Also, the use of glyphosate increased disease incidence, perhaps by signalling the pathogens to move from the dying plants to newly seeded ones. A delay of at least 2 weeks is suggested between chem kill and planting of a new crop.

7570. Wilkins, D.E. and J.M. Kraft. 1987. Crop residue management and pea root rot disease.. Am. Soc. Agric. Engrs., Paper No. 87-2510.
The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of placement of crop residue on the distribution and concentration of P. ultimum and F. solani f. sp pisi propagules and the associated impact of these root rot diseases on pea growth. Results suggest that conservation tillage which utilizes crop residue on and near the soil surface for erosion control can be used in areas like northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington with cold and dry spring weather for fresh pea production and not expect serious increases in root rot diseases over clean till methods. T: Pea response to residue management.

8323. Cook, R.J.. 1990. presentation at Palouse Cons. Farm field day. .
A new combination of cropping practices appears to solve some disease problems in continuous wheat culture. Wheat straw is not toxic to wheat plants, but keeps the soil moist and favors disease. Cook suggested the following system: no-till, paired row, fertilizer placed beneath each row. The fertilizer shank disturbs the soil and inhibits certain disease organisms. Each plant has easy access to fertilizer beneath, and the P helps the seedling grow out of disease injury that may occur. P also stimulates root growth. The paired row opens up the canopy to some drying, which stops take-all and Rhizoctonia. This system is working in continuous no-till winter wheat in Pullman, and is also working in continuous no-till spring barley at Lind, WA. Cook suggested its use in the intermediate rainfall area. The fertilizer is placed at 5" depth and the seed at 1.5".

8476. Brown, D.. 1990. USDA scientist announces farming breakthrough.. News, WSU CAHE Information Dept., WSU, Pullman, WA 99164.
Dr. Jim Cook announced a new one-pass no-till system that appears to solve some of the disease problems of the past. The drill uses paired rows 7" apart, with 17" between pairs. By placing a fertilizer shank in each row, rather than in the middle of the pair, soil diseases are discouraged and young diseased roots can still reach fertilizer and grow past the damage.

10903. Weller, D.M., R.J. Cook, E.N. Bassett, R.L. Powelson, and R.R. Peterson. 1986. Rhizoctonia root rot of small grains favored by reduced tillage in the Pacific Northwest.. Plant Disease 70:70-73.
The first field identification of Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat and barley was made in eastern Oregon and Washington at six different locations. At all sites where the disease occurred, the wheat or barley was either direct drilled into stubble, sown with minimum tillage, or sown the same day the soil was tilled. In experimental plots with winter wheat, there were 9.9, 2.8, and 1.4 patches per treatment in which no-till, reduced till, and conventional till, respectively, were practiced.

11007. Moore, K.J. and R.J. Cook. 1984. Increased take-all of wheat with direct drilling in the Pacific Northwest.. Phytopathology 74:1044-1049.
Take-all occurred more frequently or more severely on consecutive wheat crops seeded no-till into undisturbed stubble compared to plots with moldboard or disk plowing. This held true at three different climatic locations, for two seasons, and for winter and spring wheat. Differences in soil temperature and moisture could not account for the effect, nor did additional fertilization. Disease with no-till apparently was increased because of more infested debris and because the inoculum source was ideally positioned for infection of the crop.

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