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11085. Cook, R.J. and A.D. Rovira. 1976. The role of bacteria in the biological control of Gaeumannomyces graminis by suppresive soils.. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8:269-273.
The suppresion of take-all by certain soils or following certain soil treatments is considered to be an expression of either specific or general antagonism. Specific antagonism is effective in dilutions as high a 1 in 1000, can be transferred from soil to soil, operates near or on wheat roots, is destroyed by 60 C moist heat, is fostered by wheat monoculture, but may be lost by fallow or rotation with certain crops, especially legume hay or pasture. Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens may be involved. General antagonism is a soil property which cannot be transferred and is resistant to 80 C heat, to chemical fumigation, but not to autoclaving. Take-all control by organic amendments, minimum tillage, or a soil temperature of 28 C may be expressions of increased general antagonism. In southern Australia, take-all losses can be very heavy. Some general antagonism occurs, but seldom any specific antagonism. Both types occur in dryland wheat areas of the Pacific Northwest, where take-all is virtually non-existent.