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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Sunday, January 21, 2018

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3107. Dormaar, J.F. and C.W. Lindwall. 1989. Chemical differences in dark brown chernozemic Ap horizons under various conservation tillage systems.. Can. J. Soil Sci. 69:481-488.
Soil properties were investigated in two long-term studies: a 19 yr study of till vs. no-till in wheat fallow, and a 9 yr study of till vs. no-till with 3 rotations, including continuous cropping. No-till had the predominant influence on improving various soil physical and microbial properties. There was little difference in continuous cropping versus wheat-fallow, with tillage. The study compared soil from the entire plow depth, and concluded that 19 yr was long enough for the entire Ap horizon to benefit from no-till. No-till in both studies led to 40% of the dry aggregates being >0.84 mm. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities were twice as high under no-till as under cultivatiion. No-till also led to the largest monosaccharide accumulation in the soil.

8559. Hammel, J.E.. 1989. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on bulk density and soil impedance in northern Idaho.. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 53:1515-1519.
Bulk density and soil impedance (measured with a penetrometer) were studied on a set of tillage x rotation plots after 10 yr of treatments. Tillage had a significant effect on bulk density, but not on soil impedance. Crop rotation did not significantly influence either property. There were differences with depth. Minimum and no-till soil impedance was greater than conventional till in the surface 5-15 cm. Higher impedance values under reduced tillage, while not preventing root growth, may limit root function when combined with typical cool, wet spring soils, and thus decrease crop growth potential.

11308. Coutts, G.R. and R.K. Smith. 1991. Zero Tillage Production Manual.. Manitoba-North Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Association, Brandon, Manitoba.
The manual contains a mix of research results and grower experience with no-till management in the Northern Plains. A calendar of operations is included. In a four-year Manitoba study, average net returns per acre for no-till and minimum till were 130% and 77% higher, respectively, compared to conventional tillage.

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