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754. Bennett, W., D. Pittman, D. Tingey, D. McAllister, H. Peterson, and I. Sampson. 1954. Fifty years of dry land research (at the Nephi Field Station).. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 371.
Summarizes the results of 50 yr of research at the Nephi Field Station in cental Utah. Discusses climate - spring rainfall crucial, fall emergence of wheat correlated to high yields. Ave. annual precipitation is 12.65 in. Tillage experiments - fall verus spring plowing did not affect yields, while late spring plowing lowered yields. Plowing to 8" depth increased yields by 8% compared to plowing at 5". Yields were higher with plowing and no further cultivation on fallow (weeds controlled) than with normal fallow tillage. Yields were poor with stubble mulch. Fertility: A pea green manure increased wheat yields both in the short and long term. Wheat yields were sometimes depressed by green manure, due to moisture shortage or N immobilization. Manure application increased wheat yields in all treatments, and was more beneficial in wet years. N fertilizer increased wheat yields and protein. Burning straw increased yields for 30 yr, then they began to decline. No response to P. Wheat-fallow gave the greatest yields and net returns, and wheat was the only crop distinctly benefitted by summerfallow. Alfalfa depressed the following wheat yields but improved soil fertility. Continuous wheat yielded less than 40% of wheat-fallow. Wheatgrasses showed potential for forage and seed. Spring wheats yielded 60% of winter wheat. Only 32% of rainfall was stored as soil moisture in summerfallow. Overall, yields were low (15-25 bu/ac) and treatment differences were small (1-3 bu). These results predate the semidwarf wheat varieties.
6583. USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1974. Soil conditioning rating indices for major irrigated and non-irrigated crops grown in the Western U.S.. Conservation Agronomy Technical Note No. 27.
This document presents a rating system to judge how various cropping systems affect soil condition over time. It assigns numerical values to various practices and totals them over a rotational sequence, with either a +, -, or neutral outcome. It is not a method for determining erosion. The concepts presented are helpful in assessing "soil quality" for cropping systems, both irrigated and dryland.
9284. Bracken, A.F. and G. Stewart. 1930. A quarter century of dry farm eExperiments at Nephi, Utah.. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 222, Logan, UT..
Dry farming began in Boxelder County in 1863 and has now extended to all parts of the state where precipitation and topography permit favorable development. Alternate cropping with fall or early spring planting is the general practice. On page 41, there is a summary of results covering the following subjects: weather, data, treatment of land before plowing, plowing, treatment of summer fallow seeding experiments, cropping experiments, cereal varieties, fertility experiments, and rotations.
9962. Chilcott, E.C.. 1910. A study of cultivation methods and crop rotations for the Great Plains area.. USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 187. 78 pp..
This paper reports the results of a four-year experiment in crop rotation and cultivation methods conducted at eleven stations in the Great Plains area. Some of the questions asked of this experiment were how can the largest average yields of corn, spring wheat, oats and barley be obtained, do moisture conservation methods pay where continuous cropping to the same crop is practiced, and can green manuring be profitably substituted for summer tillage? The results found that a 3-year rotation of corn, wheat and oats gave the most profitable returns. Continous cropping with moisture conservation methods of fall plowing and fall, winter and spring tillage did not give results to warrant its recommendation. The most highly recommended practice was that of green manuring. For greatest benefits to the soil, it was recommended to plow in a green manure crop in early season, with little summer tillage, until wheat planting time.
11308. Coutts, G.R. and R.K. Smith. 1991. Zero Tillage Production Manual.. Manitoba-North Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Association, Brandon, Manitoba.
The manual contains a mix of research results and grower experience with no-till management in the Northern Plains. A calendar of operations is included. In a four-year Manitoba study, average net returns per acre for no-till and minimum till were 130% and 77% higher, respectively, compared to conventional tillage.