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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Wednesday, January 17, 2018

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555. Auld, D.L., G.A. Murray, and R.V. Withers. 1983. Austrian winter peas: a green manure crop for Idaho.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #652.
Good % of pea N is from soil; best to plow under right after flowering; Melrose contributed 278 lb/ac of vine N; winter peas produced slightly more biomass than spring peas, but fall peas can be plowed 2 weeks earlier; spring peas accumulated 70 lb N/ac more than winter peas; variable cost of WW-SB-SF = $63/ac, uses 120 lb N/ac; for WW-SB-pea GM = $59/ac, with only 40 lb N/ac; must consider intangible benifits; recommended green manure crop every 3-5 years. T: organic matter yield, nitrogen content, costs.

2946. Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta.. 1936. Annual Report. Id Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull #220.
W-P-Alf vs. W-P rotations; peas with alfalfa outyielded peas W-P by 28%; plants were 3" taller; screened 10 Alaska varieties. Gypsum still the best fertilizer for alfalfa.

3955. Mahler, R.L. and D.L. Auld. 1989. Evaluation of the green manure potential of Austrian winter peas in northern Idaho.. Agron. J. 81:258-264.
Austrian winter peas were evaluated as a green manure (GM) or seed pea (SP) crop, along with soil N levels, and subsequent yields of winter wheat (WW) and spring barley (SB). Four rotations were tested: GM-WW-SB; SP-WW-SB; SB-WW-SP; SF-WW-SB. Average N fertilizer equivalent values of 94, 75, and 68 kg/ha were provided by GM, SP, and SF (fallow) respectively, to the following wheat crop. Yield differences due to crop rotation or N fertilization rate were not observed in the third year of the cropping sequence. Austrian winter peas used as either a GM or SP provided more inorganic N than SF or SB. Although cereal crop yields were comparable, the SP-WW-SB was more profitable than GM-WW-SB or SF-WW-SB, due to the extra harvested crop.

4536. Moodie, C.D. and S.C. Vandecaveye. 1944. Yield and nitrogen content of chickpeas, Cicer arietinum, as affected by seed inoculation.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 8:229-233.
A study of 2 yrs duration was made of the effect of inoculation upon the growth and nitrogen content of chickpeas. It was shown that chickpeas are readily inoculated, nodulate very proficiently by a suitable species of Rhizobium, and do not belong in the R. leguminosarium cross inoculation group. Chickpeas appeared to be more efficient in fixing atmospheric nitrogen than are field peas, and since they are grown as an intertilled crop some of the aspects of summer-fallowing are retained. The data obtained under the conditions of the experiments indicate that in so far as soil nitrogen economy is concerned the inclusion of chickpeas in the agricultural practice in the semi-arid area in eastern Washington where the annual rainfall is 18 inches or more offers considerable promise as an improvement on summer-fallow when grown in rotation with wheat. T: Yields and nitrogen content of chickpeas in 1941. Height, yield and nitrogen content of chickpeas in sand culture. Grain yields and nitrogen content of green and mature tissues of chickpeas in 1942.

4713. Murray, G.A. and J.B. Swenson. 1984. Intercropping Austrian winter peas and winter cereals for seed.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #749.
Peas seeded at 25, 50 and 75% of mixture with winter wheat or barley; both crops harvested on same day; 25% cereal, 75% pea was best mix; less lodging, less disease, 27% yield increase; cereal yields very low; apperently no N advantage to cereal from the pea; less lodging with winter wheat compared to winter barley; better maturity match with barley; LER over 130 with WW(25%) + WP(75%). T: yield, seed size.

7662. Wright, A.T. and E. Coxworth. 1987. Benefits from pulses in the cropping systems of northern Canada. p. 108. IN: J.F. Power (ed.). The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems..
Investigated yield and N response in barley and wheat, 1 and 2 years after pulse crops of fababean, pea, and lentil. Overall yields were higher on fababean and field pea residues than lentils. Soil tests could not attribute yield differences among crop residues to differences in soil N levels at time of seeding. Nitrogen fertilizer equivalents for barley were 105, 85, and 50 lb N/ac for fababean, peas, and lentils. Legume residues influenced barley grain quality. In the second year following pulses, the dry matter yield, grain yield, and N uptake of wheat was 15% higher than in the continuous cereal sequence. Analysis of 3 completed rotation cycles showed that cropping sequences that included pulses were considerably more productive than the continuous cereal sequence in terms of net energy production and economic gross margin to cash costs. Field peas were the most effective first-year crop in terms of net energy production.

7786. Engel, R., L.E. Welty, R. Lockerman, J. Bergman, G. Kushnak, L. Prestbye, and J. Sims. 1987. Annual legumes and cereal grain rotations in Montana.. Montana AgResearch 4(3):1-4.
Montana researchers examined the performance of several grain legumes (dry pea, chickpea, lentil) and their effect on a subsequent barley crop. Dry pea production was the highest. A subsequent barley crop rsponded to added N fertilizer at three out of six sites. Barley yields following legumes were generally equal to or greater than yields following fallow. The annual legumes contributed to soil N and reduced the fertilizer N needed to reach maximum yield by 40-55 lb N/ac when compared to recrop barley. This translated into savings of $10-14/ac for fertilizer N.

10586. Plancquaert, P. and R. Haggar. 1989. Legumes in Farming Systems.. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht.
This is the published proceedings of a European workshop held in 1988. Peas fixed about as much N as was exported in seed. Pea residues break down quickly, and a fall crop is needed to prevent leaching losses of N from pea residue. Peas had a minimal rotation effect for a subsequent cereal crop, but provided the equivalent of 20-80 kg N/ha when preceding an oilseed rape crop. Removing pea straw had little impact on the rotation effect. In another study, pea yields decreased when peas made up more than 25% of the rotation. Peas can be grown more frequently, using more crop protection materials, and this may provide the most profit.

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