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Saturday, January 20, 2018

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555. Auld, D.L., G.A. Murray, and R.V. Withers. 1983. Austrian winter peas: a green manure crop for Idaho.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #652.
Good % of pea N is from soil; best to plow under right after flowering; Melrose contributed 278 lb/ac of vine N; winter peas produced slightly more biomass than spring peas, but fall peas can be plowed 2 weeks earlier; spring peas accumulated 70 lb N/ac more than winter peas; variable cost of WW-SB-SF = $63/ac, uses 120 lb N/ac; for WW-SB-pea GM = $59/ac, with only 40 lb N/ac; must consider intangible benifits; recommended green manure crop every 3-5 years. T: organic matter yield, nitrogen content, costs.

835. Bezdicek, D.F.. 1990 Jan.. Crop rotation studies. presentation at STEEP Annual Review, Moscow, ID.
Several studies were described in which different legume green manures were grown before winter wheat and treated with different residue management. Wheat yields were consistently depressed following chemically-killed legumes in the first study, but not in the second. Under chemical kill, there was a 40 bu/ac wheat yield response to soil fumigation. Part of the fumigation response appeared to be higher available N. Also, it appeared that chemical kill may be increasing N mineralization. Results are being prepared for publication.

995. Bonnett, R.K. and H.W. Hulbert. 1922. Sweet clover. Id Agr. Expt. Sta. Circular #22.
More drought tolerant than red clover or alfalfa; biennial white is best for Idaho; value for hay and soil improvement; white yields 1T more hay than yellow; quality of hay better from yellow; well adapted to alkali soils; 15 lb/ac seeding; early seeding best, without nurse crop in drier areas; peas are best nurse crop; as a green manure, is expensive, decay is slow, depletes soil moisture; need to summerfallow after SC in the drier areas.

1765. Dunbar, B. and D. Nielsen. 1987. White lupins as a rotation alternative with winter wheat in conservation tillage systems.. IN: J.F. Power(ed.) The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems.
Tested white lupin adaptability to irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in Colorado. Screened the crop for a number of herbicides, none of which was entirely satisfactory. All damaged or killed the lupins at rates needed to control weeds. Non-irrigated yields were about 30 bu/ac, up to 50 bu/ac with full irrigation. Lupins did not appear to utilize stored soil water at lower depths.

2784. Hulbert, H.W.. 1927. Sweetclover.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #147.
Biennial white is best forage, biennial yellow is too short; can handle alkaline soils; earlier seeding is best; 15 lb/ac seed, or 10 lb/ac in drier areas; nurse crop is risky, peas may be best; 3/4 T/ac hay first season, 2-3 T/ac second year; best used for pasture and soil improvement; can be grazed early spring through fall; improves soil quality, breaks up subsoil; sweetclover as green manure too expensive for dry areas; one system used is WW/SC planted in fall (unscarified seed) at 5 lb/ac; after wheat harvest, pastured SC into late fall; field is spring plowed and SF; then WW again, this raised WW yields 3-8 bu/ac; might try with Hubam (annual) SC.

2946. Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta.. 1936. Annual Report. Id Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull #220.
W-P-Alf vs. W-P rotations; peas with alfalfa outyielded peas W-P by 28%; plants were 3" taller; screened 10 Alaska varieties. Gypsum still the best fertilizer for alfalfa.

3481. Kaiser, V.G. and A.W. Jacklin. 1939. Annual progress report for field test "effect of cropping systems".. USDA-SCS.
Better sweetclover stands when seeded alone or with grass; peas better than cereals; hi (>10 lb/ac) seeding rate leads to better stands; best seeding date April 10-May 7; more weeds in second year when grown with companion crop; sweetclover/grass mix gave greater wheat yield increase than SC alone, also had less erosion; excellent thorough study. T: Yield, erosion X agronomic management.

3955. Mahler, R.L. and D.L. Auld. 1989. Evaluation of the green manure potential of Austrian winter peas in northern Idaho.. Agron. J. 81:258-264.
Austrian winter peas were evaluated as a green manure (GM) or seed pea (SP) crop, along with soil N levels, and subsequent yields of winter wheat (WW) and spring barley (SB). Four rotations were tested: GM-WW-SB; SP-WW-SB; SB-WW-SP; SF-WW-SB. Average N fertilizer equivalent values of 94, 75, and 68 kg/ha were provided by GM, SP, and SF (fallow) respectively, to the following wheat crop. Yield differences due to crop rotation or N fertilization rate were not observed in the third year of the cropping sequence. Austrian winter peas used as either a GM or SP provided more inorganic N than SF or SB. Although cereal crop yields were comparable, the SP-WW-SB was more profitable than GM-WW-SB or SF-WW-SB, due to the extra harvested crop.

4377. McKay, H.C. and W.A. Moss. 1949. High protein wheat with conservation farming.. U. of Idaho Extension Bull. #181.
Emphasize need for legume - grass rotation to maintain soil productivity. Suggest a 7 yr sweet clover rotation or a 9 yr alfalfa rotation. Yellow sweet clover plus mountain bromegrass or slender wheatgrass; Ladak alfalfa plus smooth brome and big bluegrass (high rainfall) or crested wheatgrass (low rainfall); early spring seeding recommended without nurse crop; methods of establishment, plow sweetclover at 12-22" height; use sweetclover as a surface mulch to prevent erosion. T: soil moisture and sweetclover growth; wheat after sweetclover; yield and protein.

4713. Murray, G.A. and J.B. Swenson. 1984. Intercropping Austrian winter peas and winter cereals for seed.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #749.
Peas seeded at 25, 50 and 75% of mixture with winter wheat or barley; both crops harvested on same day; 25% cereal, 75% pea was best mix; less lodging, less disease, 27% yield increase; cereal yields very low; apperently no N advantage to cereal from the pea; less lodging with winter wheat compared to winter barley; better maturity match with barley; LER over 130 with WW(25%) + WP(75%). T: yield, seed size.

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