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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Sunday, April 22, 2018

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1765. Dunbar, B. and D. Nielsen. 1987. White lupins as a rotation alternative with winter wheat in conservation tillage systems.. IN: J.F. Power(ed.) The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems.
Tested white lupin adaptability to irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in Colorado. Screened the crop for a number of herbicides, none of which was entirely satisfactory. All damaged or killed the lupins at rates needed to control weeds. Non-irrigated yields were about 30 bu/ac, up to 50 bu/ac with full irrigation. Lupins did not appear to utilize stored soil water at lower depths.

2889. Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta.. 1947. Annual report. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #269.
Weed response to 2,4-D - perennials; alfalfa by fertilizer experiments - hay yield over 4 T/ac, responded to P,S; wheat yields after 7 yr alfalfa responded to S and ammonium sulfate; yields up to 68 bu/ac. T: weed response to 2,4-D.

6359. Smiley, R., D. Wilkins, W. Uddin, S. Ott, K. Rhinhart, and S. Case. 1989. Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat and barley.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 840, p. 68-79..
Rhizoctonia root rot is now considered the most severe root disease of barley in the PNW. It is more important than take-all and Pythium on wheat produced in drier areas (<16" precip.). Based on long-term plots at Pendleton, different management systems are unlikely to greatly influence the biological resistance of soils to Rhizoctonia. Rotational crops susceptible to Rhizoctonia include wheat, barley, peas, chickpeas, lentils, and rapeseed. The disease is less apparent on small grains after legumes than after cereals. Rhizoctonia damage is always highest on no-till systems, but yields may not suffer due to improved water relations under conservation tillage. Australian research indicates that applications of N and P fertilizers can reduce the disease. There appear to be detrimental herbicide interactions with Rhizoctonia, particularly Glean on high pH soils. Also, the use of glyphosate increased disease incidence, perhaps by signalling the pathogens to move from the dying plants to newly seeded ones. A delay of at least 2 weeks is suggested between chem kill and planting of a new crop.

8384. Beus, C., D. Dillman, and J. Carlson. 1990. Palouse agriculture: a survey on production practices, policies, and problems.. unpublished results, Dept. of Rural Sociology, Washington St. Univ., Pullman, WA 99164.
This random survey was done in the Palouse area of eastern WA and northern ID, with a random sample of about 260 farmers. Average farm size was 1392 acres. One-third of the respondents would like to change their current rotation, primarily to reduce disease problems, but consider government programs to be the biggest barrier. Desire to use no-till planting was evenly split. Half the respondents felt they were using most of the available erosion control practices. Large percentages (>60%) felt that contour tillage, surface roughness, no-till, good plant cover, and tilth were very important erosion control factors. Herbicide and fertilizer use trends over the past five years were normally distributed. Use of fungicides on wheat (other than seed treatment) was generally less than 20%. Half the farmers currently use soil testing, and of those, 90% tested for residual N to 4-5 ft. depth. Half the respondents felt they had cut back on pesticide and fertilizer use since their high point, while only 10-20% felt they would do so in the future. About 65% had heard of the LISA program, and 26% indicated opposition to it.

8608. Young, F.L.. 1990. IPM systems research.. unpublished handout from USDA-ARS Weed Research Unit, Pullman, WA 99164.
The IPM Weeds study near Pullman, WA uses two 3-yr crop rotations, two tillage systems, and three weed management (herbicide) levels. Spring pea average yields after 3 yr were higher with chisel plow than with moldboard plow, slightly responsive to increased weed management level, and highest with maximum weed management/chisel plow combination.

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